Revista Científica y Arbitrada de Ciencias Sociales y Trabajo Social ‘‘Tejedora’’: Vol. 5 (Núm. 10) (jul-dic 2022). ISSN: 2697-3626  
Construcción de una política pública para mejorar la calidad de vida de los adultos mayores en Tisaleo, Ecuador  
CONSTRUCCIÓN DE UNA POLÍTICA PÚBLICA PARA MEJORAR LA CALIDAD DE VIDA DE LOS  
ADULTOS MAYORES EN TISALEO, ECUADOR  
CONSTRUCTION OF A PUBLIC POLICY TO IMPROVE THE ELDERLY QUALITY OF LIFE IN TISALEO,  
ECUADOR  
1
Espín-Meléndez María Cristina  
Jiménez-Sánchez Álvaro  
Paredes-Ruiz Teresa de Jesús  
2
3
1
2
3
RESUMEN:  
Las políticas públicas constituyen un instrumento gubernamental para dirigir la gestión pública durante un período  
de gobierno determinado. En este artículo se propone un esquema de políticas públicas para mejorar la calidad de  
vida del adulto mayor del cantón Tisaleo, Ecuador. En base a un diagnóstico previo se identificaron las necesidades  
del sector y se realizó la construcción técnica de políticas públicas con el aporte de los diferentes actores. Con estas  
políticas se pretende afianzar el trabajo del gobierno cantonal en la atención prioritaria que se debe dar a este grupo  
etario en cumplimiento de la legislación ecuatoriana.  
Palabras Clave: Políticas públicas, calidad de vida, adulto mayor, gestión, Ecuador.  
ABSTRACT:  
Public policies are a governmental instrument to direct public management during a given period. This article  
proposes a public policy scheme to improve the elderly quality of life in Tisaleo, Ecuador. Based on a previous  
diagnosis, the sector's needs were identified, and the technical construction of public policies was carried out with  
the contribution of the different actors. These policies are intended to strengthen the cantonal government's work  
in the priority attention given to this age group in compliance with Ecuadorian legislation.  
Keywords: Public policies, quality of life, elderly, management, Ecuador.  
Recibido: 31 de marzo de 2022; Aceptado: 08 de junio de 2022; Publicado: 09 de julio de 2022.  
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Espín-Meléndez et al. (2022)  
1. INTRODUCTION  
Public policy is the product of government-  
and populated areas. It is located northwest  
of the Ambato canton and borders Mocha to  
the south (Agenda Tungurahua, 2019).  
society interaction; it is co-produced by  
public power and citizens according to  
different forms and degrees of interlocution  
and influence. Thus, it is constituted as a  
public work and not only a governmental  
one (Aguilar, 2012).  
This canton has two parishes, an urban one  
(
Tisaleo cantonal head) and a rural one  
Quinchicoto). In terms of population, it is  
(
inhabited by 14,317 people (2020), with  
agriculture and livestock being the main  
economic activities.  
The actions of governments, both national  
and local of a country, obey a political  
ideology with which the government  
identifies itself, having to meet social needs  
with parameters of effectiveness and  
efficiency, without neglecting that such  
public policies comply in their elaboration  
with specific technical parameters, which  
are reviewed in this document.  
According to the 2010 census data, the  
elderly population (65 years and older)  
reached about 1,100 people, primarily  
located in the rural areas of Tisaleo. These  
data have been updated thanks to the  
program "My best years," wherein in 2019  
they were approximately about 2,000 older  
adults.  
Suppose it is understood that government  
actions attend to social needs. In that case,  
citizens' participation as actors in the  
generation of public policies cannot be  
ignored since they are not only recipients  
but act from the very moment of their  
formulation, even more so in the cases of  
participatory governments.  
Regarding the protection policies for this  
group at the national level, the National  
Development Plan 2017- 2021 seeks to  
strengthen  
inclusion,  
social  
equity,  
comprehensive protection, and care for all  
people during their life cycle. Accordingly,  
the "My first years" program is being  
developed, whose purpose is to improve the  
elderly life quality of living in extreme  
poverty. It consists of a voucher, medical  
Tisaleo is one of the nine cantons that make  
up the Tungurahua province, with an area of  
59.02 km2, sharing this area with moorlands  
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Construcción de una política pública para mejorar la calidad de vida de los adultos mayores en Tisaleo, Ecuador  
care,  
gerontological  
services,  
and  
coverage (Agenda Tungurahua, 2017-2021,  
pp. 16).  
educational and recreational activities (Plan  
Nacional del Buen Vivir, 2017-2021).  
Therefore, this work aims to develop a series  
of public policies that respond to the needs  
of older adults in Tisaleo and that are  
congruent with the governmental resources  
of the locality.  
Public policies for this population have been  
oriented in three axes; inclusion and social  
participation, considering them as actors of  
social development; the second axis is social  
protection, aimed at reducing poverty,  
vulnerability, and social exclusion; the last  
axis is oriented to attention and care  
through the service of public and private  
gerontological centers (DNPAM, 2021).  
2. METHODOLOGY  
In the first phase of the research project,  
developed by the Faculty of Jurisprudence  
and Social Sciences at Universidad Técnica  
de Ambato entitled "Integrating project of  
elderly quality of life in Tisaleo," a diagnosis  
was made to assess the elderly quality of life.  
Eighty people were interviewed, selected by  
random sampling from a population of 2,000  
older adults in the sector. Open and semi-  
structured questions were used for this  
evaluation, which the researchers later  
tabulated. These questions will be  
summarized below in order to identify the  
problems to which the suggested public  
policy seeks to provide a solution.  
In its planning 2017- 2021, the Government  
of the Tungurahua Province focuses on the  
group of older adults with social policies in  
three axes: education and training, health  
and welfare, and participation and social  
inclusion. The first is oriented to specialized  
academic training in the attention and care  
of the elderly. The second one goes from the  
field of nutrition and integral health, sports,  
recreation, education, daily care, and  
accessibility in public transportation.  
Furthermore, no less important, the third  
axis, with which it is intended to ensure the  
inclusion of the elderly in society through  
generational meetings and universal general  
social insurance seeking to expand its  
With the diagnosis made, the problems were  
identified, and then a technical construction  
of the objectives, policies, and programs that  
should be developed in Tisaleo was carried  
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out. In the development process, public  
The second criterion for evaluating the  
quality of life of older adults is health, in  
which the respondents' assessment of their  
well-being is not favorable. 53.8% consider  
their health to be wrong and 18.7% awful.  
Their major illnesses are joints and bones,  
visual disorders, cardiovascular problems,  
hearing disorders, and blood pressure. Even  
so, joint and bone diseases have not resulted  
in mobilization difficulties, with only a  
quarter of those interviewed claiming to  
have complications in performing all or part  
of their daily activities.  
policies were socialized with strategic actors  
to achieve a policy that responds to the  
needs  
from  
different  
perspectives,  
community, public institutions (MIES), and  
older adults.  
3
. RESULTADOS  
From the results obtained by Martínez  
2021), the quality of life of the elderly can  
(
be classified into four dimensions: material  
living conditions, health determinants,  
leisure, social relations, and general life  
experiences.  
One of the aspects that affect the health of  
the elderly is poor nutrition, which despite  
the various government programs to  
improve this factor, in Tisaleo, more than  
half (52.5% of those interviewed) consider  
that their food is lacking in quality and  
quantity because they do not receive five  
meals a day and those that are provided are  
not adequately balanced with the right  
proportions of food groups.  
As far as material living conditions are  
concerned, only 2.4% of those interviewed  
consider their economy to be good,  
compared to 46.3% who consider their  
economy to be average and 32.5% who  
consider their economy to be wrong, mainly  
due to their source of income, since there  
are no well-paid jobs for this age group and  
most activities are agricultural. However,  
according to ECLAC (2017, cited by Martínez,  
It is essential to highlight that Tisaleo has a  
Health Center, which could be the channel  
that treats these conditions of the  
population. However, the negative criteria  
that older adults have about the service  
provided by this institution affects their  
2021), the primary economic incomes are  
the Human Development Bonus, family  
allowances, and agricultural work.  
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condition even more since they are not  
being attended by professionals, which also  
influences the State resources allocated for  
the provision of this service.  
animal husbandry activities, or home care.  
The activities they practice in their free time  
are mainly oriented towards sharing them  
with other older adults, such as walks,  
visiting relatives, and religious activities,  
which is positive in this sector.  
This negative perception can be seen when,  
in the study conducted, more than 66% of  
older adults interviewed have difficulties  
accessing medicines from the public service,  
which impacts the negative perception of  
the public health service.  
However, when evaluating their life  
experience, the varied emotional problems  
reported by the interviewees are striking,  
such as memory loss, sadness, feelings of  
loneliness, insomnia, stress, depression, and  
in addition, 45% consider themselves not  
very satisfied with their life, and 20% are  
dissatisfied, i.e., more than half of the  
interviewees have emotional and mental  
health problems.  
The third aspect that points to the quality of  
life of this human group is related to leisure  
and social relations since they are  
determinants for emotional health and  
other factors of critical care of the elderly.  
The study developed determined that there  
are several support networks for this group,  
namely family, neighbors, and friends.  
3.1. Objectives, policies, and programs for  
the canton of Tisaleo  
A key aspect of their emotional well-being is  
their activities beyond work in the fields,  
The following are possible solutions to the  
problems described above.  
Table 1. Outline of the sector's problems and possible solutions.  
Indicators  
Problems  
Means of solution  
Feasibility  
level  
Level  
of  
government  
involved  
Central  
Material  
living  
conditions  
Work  
Political  
Low  
Management  
(Development  
sources  
Government  
of  
of  
employment  
consideration  
age)  
with  
for  
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Human  
Voucher  
Development Policy Management Low  
(Accessibility)  
Central  
Government  
Basic Services (Deficient) Policy Management Low  
Central  
Government  
Internet Telephone  
(accessibility,  
coverage, electronic  
devices)  
loans  
Housing  
Housing repair and Low  
restoration  
Miduvi- IESS  
Canalization  
Medium  
Municipal  
Government  
(
Art.137  
COOTAD)  
Health  
Diseases  
Prevention  
Diagnosis  
Treatment  
Therapies by experts  
High  
Central  
joint and bone diseases,  
visual disturbances,  
cardiovascular problems,  
blood pressure and  
hearing problems.  
Government  
through the  
Health System  
Municial  
Government  
of  
Tisaleo  
(
Art.138  
COOTAD)  
Poor Nutrition  
Medications  
Access to nutritious High  
foods  
Central  
Government  
MIES  
Use of nutrition  
foods  
Access  
Low  
Central  
Government  
Public health  
system.  
Quality of life Emotional well-being  
Prevention  
High  
Central  
(
memory loss, sadness, Diagnosis  
Government  
through the  
Health System  
Municial  
feelings  
of  
loneliness, Treatment  
insomnia,  
depression)  
stress, Therapies by experts  
Government  
of  
Tisaleo  
(
Art.138  
COOTAD)  
Life satisfaction  
Medium  
Central  
Government  
Public health  
system  
Source: Martinez (2021).  
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Construcción de una política pública para mejorar la calidad de vida de los adultos mayores en Tisaleo, Ecuador  
3
.2. Rationale  
population of 16.7% by 2030, so the policies  
of the State cannot ignore this critical fact.  
Because of their age, older adults are  
considered a priority attention group  
because they are a vulnerable human group.  
In Tisaleo, they constitute 13.9% of the total  
population of the canton, about 2,000  
people.  
3.3. Social foundation  
The rights related to a good quality of life are  
associated with an economic income that  
allows them access to fundamental rights  
such as health, food, recreation, and leisure.  
However, the elderly in Ecuador do not enjoy  
well-paid jobs or state programs that allow  
them access to economic income options. It  
would be understood that social security,  
through the old-age pension, provides the  
income required by the elderly to subsist,  
also understanding that social security is a  
socio-economic right and the State must  
guarantee it to its population.  
The State has considered the protection of  
this vulnerable group through the  
generation of public policies, such as care in  
specialized centers, protection from labor or  
economic exploitation, promotion of  
autonomy, special regimes for the  
fulfillment of recreational activities,  
protection against various types of violence,  
catastrophic diseases and adequate  
psychological and economic assistance (Art.  
Objective 1: Ensure adequate material living  
38 C.R.E).  
conditions for older adults.  
The basis for the generation of public  
policies is also found in the support for the  
rights of the elderly enshrined in Art. 37 of  
the Constitution of the Republic and in the  
Organic Law for the Elderly.  
Diagnosis:  
In Ecuador, of 1,049,824 older adults (MIES,  
2
020) in the Ecuadorian territory, only  
04,832 were pensioned in 2019, which  
4
gives 62% of the population that does not  
have social security.  
Currently, the older adult population rates  
have received an increase of 16.7% by 2030,  
according to Eurosocial (2015), based on  
ECLAC reports. An increase of the older adult  
In the rural population of Tisaleo, almost  
90% of older adults consider their economy  
as regular, bad, and very bad; this is because  
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they mostly lack social security, depending  
sanitation, since not all of them have  
sewage, which affects their hygiene habits.  
on other income such as the human  
development bonus and agricultural  
activities (Martínez, 2021). This fact means  
that they do not have their housing, or if  
they do, it is not in the best conditions of  
infrastructure and security, which is one of  
the most desired material needs.  
Policies:  
-Guarantee adequate residence or housing  
with access to essential services.  
-Promote the inclusion and economic  
independence of older adults.  
The homes have essential services (water,  
-Manage access to the internet and other  
sewage,  
and  
electricity).  
However,  
means of communication.  
telecommunications are scarce, only 1%  
have internet, and 6% have landline  
telephony, which undoubtedly affects the  
connection of the elderly with their families  
and the community in general and even the  
participation in matters of interest to their  
locality.  
Actions or Programs:  
1.- Creation of a residential gerontological  
center.  
It will be able to accommodate people over  
65 years of age, providing temporary or  
definitive protection, oriented to those who  
cannot be cared for by their families, who do  
not have a home, people in a situation of  
abandoned poverty and extreme poverty, in  
high-risk conditions and who express their  
willingness to enter (DNAM, 2021).  
Despite these low rates in the coverage of  
access to technological services, only 10% of  
older adults consider having technological  
equipment as one of their needs since it is  
more critical to cover other more pressing  
needs such as cleaning supplies and having a  
home of their own. In the study conducted  
by Martínez (2021), it is mentioned that in  
many cases, older adults have their own  
home, but it is not in good infrastructure  
conditions, being unstable (leaking roofs,  
dirt floors, broken walls, etc.) and with poor  
According to the Dirección Nacional del  
Adulto Mayor (2021), this center aims to  
protect the rights of this group, mainly those  
oriented to a good quality of life, through  
comprehensive care that contributes to the  
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well-being of the elderly (physical, social,  
and mental).  
green areas, area for older adults with  
behavioral disorders, etc.  
As for the requirements for a center of this  
type, it must have the physical space, skilled  
human talent, and the development of  
programs to provide a good quality of life for  
the elderly.  
In terms of human talent, the care unit must  
have specialized personnel responsible for  
the admission of the elderly with the  
fulfillment of the requirements and the  
surveillance, monitoring of their state of  
health, and in general for the critical care of  
the elderly in the center. However, for the  
operation of the gerontological center,  
social workers, psychologists, physical  
According to the "Technical Standard for the  
implementation  
and  
provision  
of  
gerontological services of residential  
gerontological centers" (MIES, 2019), the  
physical spaces must have areas for  
therapists,  
occupational  
therapists,  
caregivers, nurses, etc., are also required.  
The profile and requirements of the  
professionals to be hired are described in the  
MIES technical standard.  
bedrooms,  
recreation,  
parking,  
administration and sleeping areas, specific  
care areas, psychology area, occupational  
and recreational physiotherapy, primary  
medical area, first aid, kitchen area, laundry,  
Table 2. Human talent of residential gerontological center.  
Number Professional  
Number of residents under your  
care  
1
1
1
Director (Psychologist, Social Worker, Administrator Everyone in the center  
specializing in Social Management)  
Social Worker  
1 per 100 residents  
2
0 homeless  
1 per 100 residents  
per 40 homeless  
Clinical Psychologist  
1
1
1
1
1
1
1
1
Physical Therapist  
Occupational Therapist  
Caregiver  
Nurse  
Cook  
1 per 100 residents  
1 per 100 residents  
1 per 100 residents  
1 per 20 older adults  
15 per each older adult  
1 per 15 residents  
Laundry Assistant  
Cleaning person  
1 for the entire center  
Source: MIES (2019).  
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The gerontological center with general  
Therefore, the first step would be to provide  
training in office automation for the use of  
computers and internet access, aimed at  
older adults in the gerontological center, and  
then open it to all those interested in the  
sector. The gerontological center can have a  
space of 3 to 6 computers with internet  
service to guarantee the access of the  
elderly, with schedules for their use and  
connection with their families. All this,  
without neglecting the management and  
promotion for installing networks in homes  
and public areas with free wifi.  
characteristics must also have a physician  
and a nutritionist from the Public Health  
system who can perform a medical check-up  
every six months.  
2.- Promote the economic inclusion of the  
elderly.  
Tisaleo is characterized by its agricultural  
sector, one of the primary sources of income  
for older adults in the sector. According to  
the MIES (2020), 62% of the population does  
not have social security, so they continue to  
maintain this economic activity even though  
it is not always fairly remunerated.  
Objective 2: Improve the Health of the  
Elderly.  
The agricultural resources of the area can be  
necessary for the development of agro-  
industries through small businesses, in  
which the elderly are included mainly  
because of their knowledge of agriculture,  
gastronomy, and the culture of the area.  
Diagnosis  
The health of the elderly is a crucial aspect to  
guarantee the quality of life of this human  
group, focusing on physiological, nutritional,  
and psychological factors that favor integral  
wellbeing. The diseases presented by older  
adults in the sector are joint and bone  
problems, visual disorders, cardiovascular  
problems, hearing disorders, and blood  
pressure.  
3.- Manage access to the internet and other  
mass communication  
One of the reasons older adults in rural areas  
do not have internet in their homes is the  
lack of knowledge of ICTs as a mass  
communication , coupled with low incomes  
that do not favor access to electronic devices  
and internet services.  
Even so, joint and bone diseases have not  
resulted in mobilization difficulties, but only  
a quarter of the interviewees claim to have  
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complications to fully or partially perform  
their daily activities (Martínez, 2021).  
should be given to each older adult in the  
gerontological center, with a periodically  
controlled schedule.  
The health of the elderly is affected by poor  
nutrition that has not improved with the  
different government programs. In Tisaleo,  
more than half of those interviewed (52.5%)  
consider that their diet lacks quality and  
quantity because they do not receive the five  
daily meals, and the meals they do get are  
not adequately balanced with the adequate  
proportions of the food groups.  
Psychological health is as important as  
physical health, especially when older adults  
in Tisaleo present various emotional  
problems reported by those interviewed,  
such as memory loss, sadness, feelings of  
loneliness, insomnia, stress, depression, so  
health programs should include the  
diagnosis and treatment of psychological  
illnesses that can improve the quality of life  
of older adults and, together with therapies,  
strengthen family and community inclusion,  
improving moods.  
Policies  
-Guarantee access to specialized and  
comprehensive medical care for the elderly.  
-
Manage access to medicine from the public  
Access to medicines is a complexity faced by  
older adults, but the center's management  
should include the allocation of medicines to  
older adults according to their medical  
requirements, which should be relevant,  
sufficient, and adequate.  
health system.  
-
Combat malnutrition and promote healthy  
eating habits.  
Programs  
1
.-Health program in the gerontological  
2
.- Fighting poor nutrition and promoting  
center.  
healthy eating habits.  
According to the MIES technical standard,  
residential gerontological centers must have  
medical assistance from professionals of the  
Ministry of Public Health, and adequate care  
can be provided with the follow-up that  
One of the aspects that affect the health of  
the elderly is poor nutrition, which despite  
the various government programs to  
improve this factor, in Tisaleo, more than  
half, 52.5% of those interviewed, consider  
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that their food is without quality or quantity,  
Objective 3: Promote the independence,  
inclusion, and participation of older adults in  
an environment free of violence.  
this because they do not receive five meals a  
day and those that are provided are not  
adequately balanced with the right  
proportions of food groups.  
Diagnosis  
In the adequate care and development of a  
good quality of life for the elderly, it is  
essential to strengthen their independence  
for their care and attention. The social and  
family circle of older adults in this sector is  
The gerontological center must have a  
nutritionist from the Ministry of Health to  
develop the menus for the elderly who will  
be part of the program so that the meals are  
proportional and appropriate to their age.  
The nutritional program will also require a  
permanent and pertinent review of the  
condition of the older adults in the  
gerontological center.  
95% family members, but guaranteeing  
independence in the daily care habits of this  
group favors dignified aging, supported in  
another 50% by the inclusion guaranteed by  
the family, the environment, and the  
community in daily activities.  
In addition, creating a food bank with the  
participation of public and private sectors  
would favor those older adults who are not  
in the gerontological center but who also  
have food needs. The program's  
beneficiaries will be identified by the MIES,  
who, through the "My best years" senior  
citizen program, has identified their needs in  
this area. The delivery can be made on a  
weekly or biweekly basis, covering, in  
addition, the nutritional requirements  
indicated by experts for people of this age.  
Living in a favorable, inclusive, and  
participatory environment allows a good  
perception of their experiences and life  
satisfaction. The data show that 27.5% of  
those surveyed have received some physical,  
psychological or patrimonial violence.  
The older adults of Tisaleo present various  
emotional problems reported by the  
interviewees, such as memory loss, sadness,  
feelings of loneliness, insomnia, stress,  
depression, and 45% consider themselves  
dissatisfied with their life and 20% are  
dissatisfied, that is, more than half of the  
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interviewees present emotional and mental  
health problems (Martínez 2021).  
quality of life in Tisaleo," can manage  
internship agreements with the careers of  
Physical Education, Law, Social Work,  
Psychology and Physical Therapy. The  
functions would be the following:  
Policies  
-Ensure access to specialized mental health  
care.  
-Physical Education: Develop activities,  
-
Encourage independence in daily activities  
exercises, and dynamics that allow the  
development of an active life of the older  
adult.  
and eldercare activities.  
-Encourage family participation in the care of  
the elderly and raise awareness of their  
inclusion in the family and social  
environment.  
-
Law: Dissemination of the rights of this  
group and protocols for prevention and  
action in cases of violence against this age  
group.  
-To promote the social participation of the  
elderly in the political, social, and economic  
spheres.  
-
Social Work: Development of family  
therapies that benefit an adequate family  
and community integration.  
-Promote the rights of the elderly and  
protocols for prevention and action in cases  
of violence against this age group.  
-
Psychology: Implementation of preventive  
programs to avoid cognitive and physical  
deterioration.  
Programs  
-
Physical therapy: Generation of  
1.- Campaigns are generating formative  
rehabilitation programs with a special focus  
on joint and bone diseases that favor  
mobility.  
spaces.  
It is essential to point out that for the proper  
functioning of the center, it is necessary to  
develop formative spaces in which the help  
of the academy is required, for which the  
Universidad Técnica de Ambato, through the  
Objective 4: Promote the use of alternative  
spaces for revitalization, recreation,  
socialization, and meeting.  
"
Integrating Project to improve the elderly  
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Diagnosis  
Policies  
The majority of older adults in Tisaleo use  
their free time to meet with other older  
adults, their families and to go for walks.  
These activities are practiced by 67.7% of the  
population. However, recreational, sporting,  
or cultural activities are not among the  
preferred activities for older adults in the  
area they usually practice, nor is the  
enjoyment of public spaces (Martínez,  
-Promote recreational, cultural, or artistic  
activities with the participation of older  
adults.  
-Promote the use of public spaces for  
recreational activities.  
-Promote the meeting of older adults and  
the family.  
Programs  
2021).  
1.- Generation of alternative spaces for  
Quality of life is made up of several aspects:  
economic, physical and health, level of  
dependence, social and family relationships,  
psychological state, but also, as stated by the  
WHO, the individual's perception of his or  
her position in life, expectations, goals, and  
concerns. (Estrada et.al., 2011).  
revitalization, recreation, socialization, and  
meeting.  
These spaces are conceived for the meeting  
and socialization of older adults who can  
move by their means. In these spaces,  
recreational, integration, and interactive  
activities will be carried out, aimed at  
coexistence, participation, solidarity, and  
relationship with the social environment and  
promotion of positive and healthy aging  
Older adults' perception of their lives can be  
improved with programs that allow them to  
share with other older adults recreational  
activities in their free time, improving their  
mood and health. In the sector, the  
perception of the quality of life of older  
adults is not satisfactory since 65% of older  
adults responded that they feel dissatisfied  
and dissatisfied with their life (Martínez,  
(DNPAM, 2021).  
With the support networks, workshops can  
be generated with recreational, artistic, and  
sports activities that motivate integration,  
independence, and active participation,  
oriented to all gerontological centers' older  
adults.  
2021).  
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4
. DISCUSSION  
cannot provide housing or essential services,  
and other services are provided minimally.  
As far as public policies are concerned,  
Tisaleo did not have its structure, it was  
coupled through actions and programs to  
what was established in the planning of  
Good Living 2017-2021 and the Tungurahua  
The type A health center and its four health  
posts are insufficient to meet the needs of  
the canton. These conditions have not  
changed since the beginning of the study;  
moreover, they have increased with the  
Covid-19 pandemic, requiring an injection of  
$32,000 from the cantonal government to  
overcome the crisis. It would also require  
comprehensive and specialized systems for  
the elderly that have not yet been  
implemented.  
2017- 2021 agenda, so it is necessary to  
develop this management tool that allows  
prioritizing needs and organizing actions.  
The programs developed by the central  
government in the "My Best Years Program"  
sector are insufficient, considering that  
there are 2,000 older adults that represent  
1
3.9% of the population, hence the need for  
In terms of independence, inclusion, and  
participation of the elderly and a life free of  
violence, more than half of the people  
studied (65%) expressed dissatisfaction with  
their lives. Older adults in the area have  
mental health problems that have not been  
prioritized through government or local  
health programs, being necessary to be part  
of the comprehensive health program  
required by the sector. These values would  
be the most affected by the suspension of  
programs that encouraged the meeting of  
older adults and recreational activities  
the participation of social actors, academia,  
and local government to improve the quality  
of life of this vulnerable sector.  
The material conditions of life would  
increase with the creation of  
gerontological center, even more so when  
0% consider their economy to be wrong  
a
9
and 62% of the population does not have  
insurance, in addition to 30 older adults  
living on the streets, according to data from  
the PAM (2021). Currently, the "My Best  
Years Program" provides follow-up and care  
to older adults living on the streets, but it  
(Gobierno Autónomo Descentralizado del  
Cantón Tisaleo, 2020).  
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. CONCLUSIONES  
campaigns that are proposed, where the  
various actors participate with the relevant  
political impetus and attention. The  
multidisciplinary collaboration in the  
campaigns allows the achievement of the  
goals, which in this case, will be reflected in  
older adults with good living conditions,  
health problems attended timely and  
effectively, healthy nutrition according to  
their age, participation, and social  
integration, thus generating spaces free of  
violence concerning the integrity of all  
Older adults are a priority population;  
however, there are few public attention  
programs for this sector. Central  
government policies are insufficient in  
remote peripheral areas such as Tisaleo, and  
local governments are called upon to  
respond to the needs of their older adult  
population.  
The academy should contribute with  
technical knowledge and strategies that  
approach the community, building policies,  
programs, and projects that can improve the  
elderly quality of life and other vulnerable  
groups. The construction of effective public  
policies depends on the participation of all  
human  
beings.  
Undoubtedly,  
the  
development of these policies with  
efficiency and continuity would improve the  
adults' life satisfaction in the sector.  
stakeholders  
(population,  
authorities,  
BIBLIOGRAPHY  
technicians, and academia).  
Public policies are a technical instrument of  
collective management, which seeks to  
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the effectiveness and efficiency of  
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diagnoses and studies in Tisaleo, the various  
needs of older adults must be addressed  
following the direction provided by the  
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Construcción de una política pública para mejorar la calidad de vida de los adultos mayores en Tisaleo, Ecuador  
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