Revista Científica y Arbitrada de Ciencias Sociales y Trabajo Social ‘‘Tejedora’’: Vol. 4 (Núm. 7) (ene-jun 2021). ISSN: 2697-3626  
Psychosocial contribution in the context of the COVID-19 pandemic  
Vinueza-Villamar Wendy  
Moreira-Valencia Jazmín  
Navarrete-Cusme Germania  
At a global level on March 11, 2020, the World Health Organization (WHO) declared the COVID-19 virus a pandemic  
and highlighted the need to activate and expand emergency response mechanisms worldwide to stop it. In Ecuador,  
the Ministry of Public Health issued on March 11, 2020, the Ministerial Agreement No. 00126-2020 and established  
the State of Sanitary Emergency; subsequently, on March 13, President Moreno decreed a State of Emergency; and,  
with this, the National Emergency Operations Committee -EOC- was activated to coordinate the health crisis due to  
the effects of this pandemic on vulnerable groups, foreigners residing in Ecuador, as well as people living in extreme  
poverty. This work aims to provide a psychosocial contribution to work with children and adolescents (CA),  
contemporary adults and older adults during the confinement generated by COVID-19 and serves to respond  
assertively to psychosocial emanations and effects that are not only relevant to the health field. The qualitative  
methodology of descriptive type was used, with direct information of 60 patients in the city of Manta, using  
psychosocial consultations carried out by professionals in psychology and social work, in which the Hamilton Test,  
Family Test and Yesavage geriatric depression scale were applied.  
Keywords: Psychosocial, COVID-19, confinement, contribution.  
A nivel mundial el 11 de marzo del 2020, la Organización Mundial de la Salud (OMS) declaró al virus COVID-19 como  
pandemia y destacó la necesidad de activar y ampliar los mecanismos de respuesta de emergencia a nivel mundial  
para detenerla. En Ecuador el Ministerio de Salud Pública emitió el 11 de marzo del 2020, el Acuerdo Ministerial No.  
00126-2020 y estableció el Estado de Emergencia Sanitaria; posteriormente, el 13 de marzo el presidente Moreno  
decretó el Estado de Excepción; y, con ello, se activó el Comité de Operaciones de Emergencia COE- Nacional para  
la coordinación de la crisis sanitaria por los efectos de esta pandemia en los grupos de atención vulnerable,  
extranjeros residentes en el Ecuador, así como personas que se encuentran en situación de extrema pobreza. El  
presente tiene como objetivo brindar un aporte psicosocial para trabajar con niños, niñas y adolescentes (NNA),  
adultos contemporáneos y adultos mayores durante el confinamiento generado por COVID-19 y sirve para responder  
de forma asertiva a emanaciones y efectos psicosociales que no solo son de pertinencia en el ámbito salud. Se utilizó  
la metodología cualitativa de tipo descriptivo, con información directa de 60 pacientes en la ciudad de Manta,  
mediante las consultas psicosociales realizadas por profesionales en psicología y trabajo social, en lo cual se aplicaron  
el Test de Hamilton, Test de la familia y la escala de depresión geriátrica de Yesavage.  
Palabras clave: Psicosocial, COVID-19, confinamiento, aporte.  
Recibido: 28 de septiembre de 2020; Aceptado: 04 de enero de 2021; Publicado: 08 de enero de 2021.  
Revista Científica y Arbitrada de Ciencias Sociales y Trabajo Social ‘‘Tejedora’’: Vol. 4 (Núm. 7) (ene-jun 2021). ISSN: 2697-3626  
Vinueza-Villamar et al. (2021)  
The Ministry of Public Health (MPH) with the  
support of the Pan American Health  
Organization/World Health Organization  
intolerance to family life, discriminated  
consumption of psychotropic substances,  
post-traumatic stress, unresolved grief,  
(PAHO/WHO) has worked on various  
processes and preparedness actions to  
contain and respond to the pandemic. In the  
face of this reality, not only health problems  
arise, but also social, environmental,  
economic and psychosocial problems as a  
result of confinement, which are important  
variables of the Pandemic.  
mythomania, little tolerance to social life,  
and phobias.  
Under the practice and from the  
psychosocial analysis, the world is in a  
situation of anguish for diverse causes that  
hurt the physical and psychological health,  
of which the following can be mentioned:  
Following the confirmation of the first  
positive case in Ecuador, on February 29,  
The constant repetition of news in the local,  
national, and global media and social  
networks from diverse digital platforms has  
created stages of misinformation and  
greater fear in the population at a global  
020, efforts were redoubled for the  
treatment of cases, epidemiological care,  
diagnostic capacity of positive cases, as well  
as care for health staff and risk notification  
to the community resulting in the activation  
of protocols in all cantons of the country.  
Faced with the specific circumstance,  
confinement has been the main axis to  
unleash the difficulties in the field of mental  
health, and all the psychosocial schemes  
that surround the daily life of an individual,  
leading them to schematize new lifestyles.  
During confinement, new psychosocial  
issues arise that families and society  
worldwide must face and respond to in the  
face of changing lifestyles. The emotional  
state in the family environment is the one  
that has had greater repercussion,  
evidencing the emergence of signs and  
symptoms that have caused depression,  
anxiety, panic episodes, situations of  
The psychosocial factors, are present from  
the individuality of the human being, being  
vulnerable in the familiar, labor and social  
Revista Científica y Arbitrada de Ciencias Sociales y Trabajo Social ‘‘Tejedora’’: Vol. 4 (Núm. 7) (ene-jun 2021). ISSN: 2697-3626  
Psychosocial contribution in the context of the COVID-19 pandemic  
scopes; to surpass the capacities of the  
people producing exhaustion, depression or  
labor stress, represents important  
psychosocial risks that affect the health  
Apaza P et al, 2020).  
The pandemic has shown that a strong and  
stable family nucleus is of vital importance in  
society, not only during good times, but also  
during difficult times (Apaza P, Seminario  
Sanz, & Santa-Cruz Arévalo, 2020)  
These factors are more likely in situations of  
social vulnerability such as the pandemic, in  
which the family and the individual have to  
go through a series of transformations that  
can be generated in the different contexts of  
interrelationship. Among the factors  
identified are the following:  
The family is an important factor in the  
emotional and social development of the  
individual because it strengthens the  
capacities, skills and resilience to face  
different positive or negative situations that  
may arise in the context that the individual  
The longer the quarantine time, the  
greater the potential for post-traumatic  
stress symptoms.  
children, adolescents, contemporary  
adults, older adults.  
Rational fear of being infected and  
Children and adolescents during the  
infecting others.  
Confinement leads to a recurrent  
Although children and adolescents are one  
of the vulnerable and priority attention  
groups during this pandemic process, their  
psychological representations are more  
bearable, they will not always have positive  
attitudes, since there have been constant  
changes in their usual environment and this  
will cause them to visualize inappropriate  
behaviors, break routines such as playing,  
sharing with friends, going to school, to the  
park, family activities.  
state of anger due to the lack of  
socialization and emotional sharing.  
Hopelessness in not having economic  
support and a job that covers their basic  
Fear of contagion in medical centers.  
The recurrent nervousness of  
hearing the figures of contagion and  
Revista Científica y Arbitrada de Ciencias Sociales y Trabajo Social ‘‘Tejedora’’: Vol. 4 (Núm. 7) (ene-jun 2021). ISSN: 2697-3626  
Vinueza-Villamar et al. (2021)  
Both children and adolescents can observe  
our emotions, so it is very important to  
maintain resilience, all these changes and  
how they perceive our emotions can trigger  
irritability, sedentariness, lack of sleep-  
wake, unjustified crying, constant tantrums,  
eating disorder, night terrors, constant  
attention from those who care for them  
either their parents or who represent  
greater affinity, their room is their refuge  
even if they are afraid to be alone, hear non-  
existent voices.  
generating confidence in the different  
changes that occur daily.  
Do not burden children with  
extended school processes.  
Caregivers can suggest books for  
teens to read online.  
Knowing their interests and helping  
them with their life projects.  
Letting them interact with their peers  
will help create emotional outpourings  
and their inappropriate behaviors will  
progressively improve.  
It is therefore necessary to follow these  
Provide responsibility for cleaning  
Recurrent dialogue with them to  
care at home.  
recognize their emotions.  
With children it is important to read  
Reduce the time spent using social  
stories and avoid technological devices  
before their sleep-wake time, the  
creation of thematic stories based on  
their favorite characters provide security  
and emotional attachment.  
Teach the CA to recognize their  
emotions avoiding creating stereotypes.  
Organize family activities in which  
everyone participates and has their own  
responsibilities and then share  
Spending significant time outside of  
our routine and activities will strengthen  
the bonds in family life.  
experiences through what they have  
Reinforce daily what gives them  
autonomy and permanent levels of self-  
Teach that biosecurity measures are  
normal during the pandemic process,  
Revista Científica y Arbitrada de Ciencias Sociales y Trabajo Social ‘‘Tejedora’’: Vol. 4 (Núm. 7) (ene-jun 2021). ISSN: 2697-3626  
Psychosocial contribution in the context of the COVID-19 pandemic  
To inform in a clear, direct and simple  
care of him/herself in the way that was  
necessary, and after this long journey it  
becomes complex to get used to his/her  
social, work and family routines in a normal  
language everything related to the  
process of the pandemic as a preventive  
Contemporary have  
experienced the process of contagion  
It should be mentioned that a certain group  
of people after quarantine are at risk of  
facing psychological disorders that will  
become evident 3 to 6 months after the first  
stage as stated in the DSM-V evaluation  
Currently, through statistics there is a  
population that was kept in quarantine for  
testing positive for Covid-19, these men  
have undergone progressive changes in their  
lifestyles and this is added to the permanent  
mourning, for not recognizing, appropriating  
and facing the process and stages of the  
virus; having to isolate themselves as the  
rational fear of death and with the constant  
thought of infecting those they love the  
most. All this is an accumulation of  
disturbances that the person faces in  
isolation without further communication  
with the outside world.  
For people who were infected, we suggest  
the following:  
Keep the state of resilience.  
Seek psychosocial help if necessary.  
Generate activities that allow you to  
release a discharge of emotions.  
Keep personal and institutional  
support networks.  
When this individual completes the  
quarantine phase he/she faces the challenge  
of being stigmatized, recognizing that they  
treat him/her differently, they isolate  
him/her, for fear that he/she will provoke  
Emotional containment in the work  
If necessary, in the first phase of the  
process receive psychological first aid  
within 78 hours, and thus avoid  
repercussions on his/her mental health.  
hopelessness and affirmations of an anxious  
and depressive state for not having taken  
Revista Científica y Arbitrada de Ciencias Sociales y Trabajo Social ‘‘Tejedora’’: Vol. 4 (Núm. 7) (ene-jun 2021). ISSN: 2697-3626  
Vinueza-Villamar et al. (2021)  
Do not refuse help that exists within  
Do not judge, nor have feelings of  
your circle of support.  
guilt that prevent him/her from moving  
forward in the search for reconciliation  
with the grief.  
Creating a life plan after quarantine.  
Identify which emotions are  
To plan of  
accompaniment in given time  
evaluating the results of the intervention.  
carry out  
preventing them from progressing in their  
daily activities.  
Contemporary adults who have lost family  
members to covid-19  
To follow up on specific cases.  
Contemporary adults during the pandemic  
People who have suffered the death of  
family members because of the covid-19,  
have alterations of ruptures and constant  
mourning for the fact that they have not said  
goodbye to their loved one in a symbolic way  
and stuck to their traditions. The individual  
must go through all stages of grief in order  
to arrive at the acceptance approach that  
will allow him/her to deal with the loss in a  
more realistic and less disturbing way.  
During the pandemic process it has been  
possible to evidence that this population  
group has been affected in the family, social  
and work environment generating states of  
violence, separations, abuse of psychotropic  
substances, development of pathologies in  
mental health that have led to trigger  
psychosocial problems stopping their daily  
life activities. In view of this, the following  
recommendations are given:  
In following  
recommendations are suggested:  
Recognize gradual changes in  
Provide relevant support and  
maintain active listening.  
Seek support networks to help  
overcome the various problems from the  
family, social and work.  
Perform emotional containment.  
Offer emotional support to families  
Create space for dialogue in the  
according to their needs.  
family environment.  
Revista Científica y Arbitrada de Ciencias Sociales y Trabajo Social ‘‘Tejedora’’: Vol. 4 (Núm. 7) (ene-jun 2021). ISSN: 2697-3626  
Psychosocial contribution in the context of the COVID-19 pandemic  
Provide space for harmonious  
Usually older adults forget several things,  
making it necessary to repeat care for  
biosecurity measures such as handwashing,  
possession of alcohol, disinfecting food,  
proper mask use, and it is the responsibility  
of the caregiver to make room for new  
methods of care and on how the pandemic  
process is progressing. This will allow them  
not to feel displaced.  
coexistence in the workplace.  
In case of violence, it is necessary to  
communicate it to the relevant authority.  
Strengthen confidence, autonomy,  
Have active timeouts or breaks to be  
able to analyze your own individuality.  
Being aware of their conditions is of great  
value because it will be easier to denote  
alterations at the physiological level and be  
able to communicate in a timely manner to  
their family doctor.  
Seniors during the pandemic  
Definitely the elderly is the population with  
greater risk of infection according to the  
reports mentioned, it is possible that in  
some situation an elderly has some  
deterioration in their health both physically  
and mentally, being that they demand that  
their caregivers are strengthened, and under  
their levels of acceptance there are  
emotions of irritability, frustration, absence  
of sleep-wake, disorientation, total or partial  
loss of appetite, most do not understand  
what is happening and tend to fall into a  
state of constant anger, their greatest  
sadness is to feel that their family does not  
want them and the sanction of  
abandonment takes over them causing  
depressive and anxious episodes that trigger  
crises and these affect their physical and  
mental health.  
Be alert if sleep-wake is maintained  
for a prolonged period of time.  
Try to avoid the dietary disorder as it  
may cause alterations and develop an  
eating disorder.  
Note if the older adult remains for  
more than a month with depressive  
symptoms such as not wanting to do  
anything and only spending time in bed.  
Monitor for physical symptoms such  
as tachycardia, easy crying, irrational fear,  
intestinal problems, excessive sweating.  
Revista Científica y Arbitrada de Ciencias Sociales y Trabajo Social ‘‘Tejedora’’: Vol. 4 (Núm. 7) (ene-jun 2021). ISSN: 2697-3626  
Vinueza-Villamar et al. (2021)  
Let them dialogue with their peers,  
but the most relevant is mental hygiene  
the emotional discharges between them  
Confinement intervention model  
Provide emotional support.  
At the present time individuals in society are  
facing a moment of emotional crisis referred  
to as:  
It is necessary for older adults to be  
able to create spaces for harmonious  
“The psychological impact on life situations  
If the older adult lives alone, look for  
that are complex or not, but which are  
painfully experienced by the individual,  
either because of the characteristics of the  
event or because of various individual  
factors, both conscious and unconscious. To  
face and protect oneself in this situation, the  
person uses mechanisms that help to relief  
his/her discomfort and eventually restore  
his/her previous emotional balance”.  
a support network that can help with  
their care.  
Receive emotional affection from  
family and friends.  
It is necessary that these signs or symptoms  
can be recognized and when they occur seek  
help from a multidisciplinary team; help  
should also start from the family  
environment, contributing to areas of  
harmonious coexistence, directing the  
disturbances to positive changes to maintain  
resilience, and encourage priority support to  
those who need it.  
(Martínez Guzmán, 2020, pág. 3).  
A contribution in the intervention against  
confinement, is the model in crisis that aims  
to address the individual from the first  
moment to contain the cause of  
psychoemotional disintegration, reducing  
asymptomatic exposures and suffering,  
stabilizing the individual and protecting  
him/her from stress and anxiety.  
Confinement due to the pandemic was  
shown to be a cause for change and  
adaptation. In the course of this process, not  
very pleasant experiences will be discovered  
for many and significant learning for others,  
This model is one of the most timely in  
interventions with all affected groups,  
whether or not they are affected during the  
Revista Científica y Arbitrada de Ciencias Sociales y Trabajo Social ‘‘Tejedora’’: Vol. 4 (Núm. 7) (ene-jun 2021). ISSN: 2697-3626  
Psychosocial contribution in the context of the COVID-19 pandemic  
pandemic, health care personnel, and direct  
this stage the patient is already aware of  
what is happening. The professional  
prepares the individual to avoid future  
crises and manage his or her emotions.  
care. The phases of a crisis or grief are denial,  
rebellion, negotiation, depression, and  
acceptance. (Ávila Cedillo, 2020, pág. 22)  
The intervention applied by the professional  
in the first instance is to give psychological  
assistance (support, guidance, listening) to  
users who are in a crisis or emotional  
emergency to recover or prevent  
consequences that affect the psycho-  
emotional health of the individual.  
Crisis interventions aim to minimize  
assistance during the prevention and control  
of the epidemic, thus trying to avoid  
subsequent problems such as post-  
traumatic stress.  
For the professional practice, patients were  
approached from the following phases:  
The present contribution has been  
The initial approach, done through  
methodology, which Mesías refers to as an  
approach that rejects the rational  
pretension of only quantifying the human  
reality, giving importance to the context, the  
function and the meaning of the human acts,  
it values the reality as it is lived and  
perceived, with the ideas, feelings and  
motivations of its actors (2010, pág. 1)  
consultation, in this phase the user  
expressed sensitivity to the events that  
occurred during the pandemic. Interviews  
and family tests were conducted.  
In the intermediate phase, sessions  
were held in which feelings of anguish,  
frustration, relief and improvement in the  
process of acceptance are externalized.  
Here the user recognizes and faces the  
emotions that he/she is living in the  
current moments.  
It is a contribution of a descriptive type, since  
it seeks to publicize a series of activities and  
recommendations that contribute to  
personal development in dealing with  
The last phase is carried out when  
the user has already gone through the  
stage of depression and acceptance; at  
Revista Científica y Arbitrada de Ciencias Sociales y Trabajo Social ‘‘Tejedora’’: Vol. 4 (Núm. 7) (ene-jun 2021). ISSN: 2697-3626  
Vinueza-Villamar et al. (2021)  
A direct information survey was carried out  
on 60 patients in the city of Manta, through  
psychosocial consultations carried out by  
professionals in psychology and social work.  
The target population were children,  
adolescents, adults and the elderly in the  
months of April to August, in which the  
following techniques and instruments were  
applied to collect information:  
following scale 0-5: Normal, 6-9: Mild  
depression, >10: Established depression.  
Techniques, related to the bibliographic  
texts that were used for the analysis of  
the content.  
The method used was the inductive and  
analytical that served to interpret the  
information collected, this allowed direct  
understanding of the subjects and describe  
the different results.  
Hamilton's test, is an instrument that  
consists of 17 items, in which anxiety and  
depression are evaluated by means of a  
scale between 0 and 5. It is evaluated  
according to the following results: Not  
depressed: 0-7 Light/minor depression: 8-  
Strategies such as active listening and direct  
dialogue were used to analyse the context of  
the family and the individual.  
3 Moderate depression: 14-18 Severe  
depression: 19-22 Very severe  
As a result, psychosocial signs and symptoms  
such as anger, irritability, cardiac agitation,  
depression, isolation, rejection, denial and  
latent grief were found in the investigated  
depression: >23. The test was used on the  
adult population.  
Family test, is a projective test where  
the child's perception of the family and  
the place he or she occupies in it is  
analyzed. It was applied to children and  
adolescents who were cared for.  
It is important to mention that the results  
are based on individual sections of each  
subject evaluated.  
Yesavage Geriatric Depression Scale,  
The results obtained from the family test  
applied to 18 children and adolescents, were  
the following: feeling of defenselessness,  
is an instrument that is used to know the  
depression of the older adult composed  
of 15 items. It is evaluated on the  
Revista Científica y Arbitrada de Ciencias Sociales y Trabajo Social ‘‘Tejedora’’: Vol. 4 (Núm. 7) (ene-jun 2021). ISSN: 2697-3626  
Psychosocial contribution in the context of the COVID-19 pandemic  
fear of the outside, exclusion, state of mind,  
greater emotional bond with the mother,  
active communication, interest in  
socialization with the physical context, will,  
a high degree of sensitivity and specificity in  
the emotional state as they were shown with  
feelings of abandonment, discouragement,  
melancholy, hopelessness and recurrent  
thoughts of death, memory problems,  
discouragement of daily activities and the  
becoming of the day.  
The Hamilton Test was applied to 20  
contemporary adults, of which the following  
ranges were found: 7% not depressed,  
light/minor depression 7%, moderate  
depression 4%, severe depression 2%, very  
severe depression 0%. These results indicate  
that due to the impact of Covid-19, feelings  
of desperation, helplessness, anxiety, guilt,  
irritability, insomnia, difficulty in carrying  
out activities, fear of the future and death,  
It is important to note that a large  
percentage of patients seen were referred to  
specialists such as psychiatry and neurology  
for ongoing treatment. These patients  
continue in psychosocial follow-up.  
In relation to the exposed result it can be  
observed the gradual increase of signs and  
psychosocial symptoms that have affected in  
a generalized way the interrelation of the  
CA, adults, older adults mainly during the  
palpitations, headaches, hyperventilation,  
weight loss and loss of appetite), have  
affected the family environment where  
family breakdown and various types of  
violence have been identified.  
Confinement can have a negative impact on  
the physical and psychological well-being of  
children and adolescents, there are two  
factors that can affect them; loss of habits  
and routines and psychosocial stress,  
revealing fears, nightmares, regressive  
behaviors, changes in appetite, increased  
tantrums, complaints or attachment  
Of the 22 older adults assessed by the  
Yesavage geriatric scale, the following  
results were obtained: 8% normal state, 9%  
mild depression, and 5% established  
depression. These results show that the  
older adult population is vulnerable and with  
Revista Científica y Arbitrada de Ciencias Sociales y Trabajo Social ‘‘Tejedora’’: Vol. 4 (Núm. 7) (ene-jun 2021). ISSN: 2697-3626  
Vinueza-Villamar et al. (2021)  
behaviors, physical symptoms such as  
headaches or tummy aches, competition for  
parental attention at home. (Espada, Orgilés,  
Piqueras, & Morales, 2020, pág. 109)  
These authors make reference to the  
psychosocial affectations in the  
contemporary adult during the quarantine,  
data that is also compared with the present  
investigation, since the confinement has  
caused diverse psychological and emotional  
symptomatology that has led to crises,  
disorders, separations in the bond in the  
person and in the family.  
In relation to what the authors have cited, it  
is necessary to mention that the children and  
adolescents have had a drastic change in  
their lifestyle, which is compared with the  
results obtained where they manifest a  
feeling of fear towards the outside,  
alteration of mood and behavior, and a  
greater bond with the maternal figure. This  
process of change has generated that  
parents can get involved in an assertive way  
in the coexistence with the CA.  
In the older adult population, it has been  
found that one of the characteristics  
presented during the quarantine is the  
absence of sleep that can cause direct  
relation with the emotional state, on the  
other hand, the affective deficiencies due to  
the absence of their relatives, the  
uncertainty of death and the diseases at  
biological and mental level that are present  
before the quarantine were aggravated  
during the confinement.  
Marquina Medina & Jaramillo-Valverde  
(2020) in the research entitled "The COVID-  
9: Quarantine and its Psychological Impact  
on the Population" whose purpose was to  
analyze the psychological impacts produced  
by the effect of the pandemic, conclude that  
there are negative psychological effects on  
both the general population and health staff,  
among the main ones: symptoms of post-  
traumatic stress, confusion and anger.  
Stressful factors include lengthening of  
quarantine, fears of infection, frustration,  
boredom, inadequate supplies, inadequate  
information, and financial losses.  
Ramírez-Ortiz, Castro-Quintero, emphasize  
the fundamental role of sleep in the  
regulation of emotions, the alteration of  
sleep can have direct consequences in the  
emotional functioning, there are several  
factors that can be related to depressive and  
anxious manifestations in patients who are  
quarantined by a pandemic, both can be  
Revista Científica y Arbitrada de Ciencias Sociales y Trabajo Social ‘‘Tejedora’’: Vol. 4 (Núm. 7) (ene-jun 2021). ISSN: 2697-3626  
Psychosocial contribution in the context of the COVID-19 pandemic  
considered a normal reaction to the stress  
generated (2020, pág. 22).  
In the process of confinement, there  
were significant changes in family life,  
such as break-ups, separation of couples,  
domestic violence.  
In view of the foregoing comparison and the  
analysis of the present research, it can be  
determined that the world population is in a  
process of psychosocial crisis that has  
executed significant changes in all social and  
daily life agents leading to recurrent social  
The elderly, considered a group of  
priority attention have been strongly  
affected during the pandemic, finding a  
high degree of emotional sensitivity,  
feeling death,  
discouragement, depression that has  
generated greater degree of  
vulnerability taking into account that they  
are more prone to physical and mental  
The individual in his/her biopsychosocial  
aspects allows the establishment of  
constructivist tools that generate calm and  
stability at the level of mental health, that is  
why the psychosocial area should always  
prioritize the well-being of the individual.  
The research with the patients was  
handled under informed consent  
throughout the process, which allowed  
the results to be discussed and the  
The children and adolescents  
developed in the context of the  
showed changes in their daily behavior in  
the family context, such as irritability,  
isolation, fear of the outside world and  
Apaza P, C. M., Seminario Sanz, R. S., &  
Santa-Cruz Arévalo, J. E. (2020).  
Factores psicosociales durante el  
confinamiento por el Covid-19 –  
Perú. Revista Venezolana de  
Gerencia, 25(90), 1-16. Obtained  
population, psychosomatic symptoms  
and significant changes in lifestyle aspects  
were reflected.  
Revista Científica y Arbitrada de Ciencias Sociales y Trabajo Social ‘‘Tejedora’’: Vol. 4 (Núm. 7) (ene-jun 2021). ISSN: 2697-3626  
Vinueza-Villamar et al. (2021)  
Ávila Cedillo, G. J. (2020). Trabajo social en  
salud: teoría y praxis innovadora.  
Margen(97), 1-46. Obtained from  
Martínez Guzmán, C. (2020). INTERVENCIÓN  
Obtained from  
Espada, J., Orgilés, M., Piqueras, J. A., &  
Morales, A. (2020). Las Buenas  
Prácticas en la Atención Psicológica  
Infanto-juvenil ante el COVID-19.  
Clinica y Salud, 31(2), 109-113.  
Mesías, O. (2010). La investigación  
Universidad Central de Venezuela: en  
http://bit. ly/30unp  
Ramírez-Ortiz, J., Castro-Quintero, D.,  
Lerma-Córdoba, C., Yela-Ceballos, F.,  
Escobar-Córdoba, F. (2020).  
Hernández Rodríguez, J. (2020). Impacto de  
la COVID-19 sobre la salud mental de  
SOCIAL. Scielo, 22.  
Electrónica, 24(3), 578-594. Obtained  
Marquina Medina, R., & Jaramillo-Valverde,  
L. (2020). El COVID-19: Cuarentena y  
su Impacto Psicológico en la