Revista Científica y Arbitrada de Ciencias Sociales y Trabajo Social ‘‘Tejedora’’: Vol. 4 (Núm. 7) (ene-jun 2021). ISSN: 2697-3626  
Family resilience in time of crisis  
Pino-Lozada Eulalia Dolores 1  
Garcés-Granda Israel Alexander  
Vallejo-Acurio Brian Alejando  
Promoting resilience is recognising strength beyond vulnerability, intending to improve the quality of life of people  
based on the way of how they perceive and face the world. Enhancing qualities, skills and attributes is the result of  
the balance between risk-protective factors. The absence of resilience can cause cognitive, affective, biological,  
socioeconomic and cultural problems, considered as a broad multiproblematic that must be managed immediately  
and effectively to resolve intrapersonal and interpersonal conflicts in the environment of the social actor; but how  
do we achieve this? through re-education with a social learning approach, facilitating the family members to acquire  
new responses that encourage solving setbacks, to achieve this purpose, we will begin with the application of PAR  
(Participatory Action Research) whose goal is that the researcher and the participants work collectively allowing to  
achieve a process of teaching, learning and practice. Our proposal is based on the systemic ecological model, on a  
socio-family intervention program inserted in educational institutions that promotes implementing an alternative.  
Keywords: Family resilience, crisis situation, social learning, systemic ecological model.  
Promover la resiliencia es reconocer la fortaleza más allá de la vulnerabilidad teniendo como objetivo mejorar la  
calidad de vida de las personas a partir de sus propios significados de cómo perciben y afrontan el mundo. Potenciar  
cualidades, habilidades y atributos es el resultado del equilibrio entre factores de riesgo-protectores. La ausencia de  
resiliencia puede causar problemas cognitivos, afectivos, biológicos, socioeconómicos y culturales es decir es  
considerada como una multiproblemática amplia que se debe tratar de forma inmediata y efectiva para resolver los  
conflictos intrapersonales e interpersonales en el entorno del actor social; pero ¿cómo logramos esto? mediante la  
reeducación con un enfoque del aprendizaje social, facilitando que las familiar adquieran nuevas respuestas que  
propicien resolver contrariedades, para conseguir este propósito, partiremos con la aplicación de la IAP (  
Investigación acción participativa) que tiene como meta que el investigador y los partícipes trabajen de manera  
conjunta permitiendo alcanzar un proceso de enseñanza, aprendizaje y práctica. Nuestra propuesta está basada en  
el modelo ecológico sistémico, en un programa de intervención socio-familiar insertado en las instituciones  
educativas que impulse a brindar una alternativa.  
Palabras Clave: Resiliencia familiar, situación de crisis, aprendizaje social, modelo ecológico sistémico.  
Recibido: 28 de septiembre de 2020; Aceptado: 04 de enero de 2021; Publicado: 08 de enero de 2021.  
Revista Científica y Arbitrada de Ciencias Sociales y Trabajo Social ‘‘Tejedora’’: Vol. 4 (Núm. 7) (ene-jun 2021). ISSN: 2697-3626  
Pino-Lozada et al. (2021)  
For a long time, human beings have been  
exposed to stressful situations, producing  
psychosocial discomfort, which is why it is  
important to generate skills, to overcome  
these states of conflict. According to  
historical data, the first research cases on  
resilience were applied to people who  
suffered from schizophrenia, people with an  
environment of constant stress or those who  
were in situations of extreme poverty, thus  
being a trigger for dysfunction in individuals  
who had experienced traumatic events at an  
early age (Masten, 1999). The pioneering  
researchers on resilience in their first  
as the risk factors, defined as "all those  
social, economic or biological conditions,  
behaviours or environments that are  
associated with or cause an increased  
susceptibility to a specific disease, poor  
health or injuries" (Cardozo and Dubini,  
2005, p. 47). On the other hand, the  
protective factors refer to "influences that  
modify, improve or alter a person's response  
to some danger that predisposes to an  
adaptive outcome " (Rutter, 1985, as cited in  
Kotliarenco, 1997, p. 12). These are aspects  
that enable the individual to develop  
strategies or coping tools to overcome  
difficulties that can arise in their life cycle  
and at the same time facilitates solving  
problems, decision making and promoting  
goals of life that favour the network of  
primary support known as family. From the  
Participatory Action Research, a qualitative  
method was used through a bibliographic  
review, it seeks to determine the problems  
correlated with the proposal regarding  
family resilience and how crises affect the  
course of human development.  
hypothesis of individual vulnerability  
affected from an early age. In addition to  
how people acquire their capacities from  
family learning and how this influences to  
face adversity.  
Family resilience as a response to conflict or  
situations that cause discomfort in the  
environment of the social actor, hence the  
need for subsidiary groups to generate skills  
that will allow overcoming crises that are  
present in unexpectedly. For this, two  
determinants should be taken into account  
The analysis of the present investigation was  
carried out through the investigation of  
theoretical sources such as books, scientific  
Revista Científica y Arbitrada de Ciencias Sociales y Trabajo Social ‘‘Tejedora’’: Vol. 4 (Núm. 7) (ene-jun 2021). ISSN: 2697-3626  
Family resilience in time of crisis  
articles, theses and magazines to obtain a  
broad perspective of the problem, this  
research could be considered as an approach  
to " reality ", in the face of situations that  
cause individual and systemic discomfort of  
circumstances, prosociality, ability to  
solve problems.  
External factors: Social and family  
environment conditions, assurance of  
unconditional affection, acceptance of a  
meaningful human being, informal  
support networks, community, work,  
group of friends and others.  
Resistance against destruction and the  
ability to protect one's identity under  
pressure, therefore promoting resilience is  
recognizing strength beyond vulnerability, to  
improve people's quality of life starting from  
the way of how they perceive and face the  
world, in other words, this can be  
understood as: The ability of the human  
being to face adversities in life, overcome  
them and be positively transformed by  
them, as a stimulus for their bio-psycho-  
social and spiritual development.  
Development of resilience capacity:  
Understanding the suffering of the other,  
knowing that we are unique and  
unrepeatable human beings with  
potentialities and goodness of life, will  
allow us to put love into action and  
life behaviour despite challenging  
It is considered as the natural group of  
diverse members that make up a functional  
structure that over time have established  
interaction guidelines, conducts and  
behaviours, illustrating the norms of  
Protective factors: Strong capacity  
for decision, growing faith, strong family  
ties, success, healthy lifestyle, positive  
group norms and economic stability.  
Internal resilient attributes: Control  
individual must implement in society.  
Besides, the family is the space where the  
individual is capable of growing through the  
of emotions and sense of humour, sense  
of purpose and future, autonomy, Sense  
of humour, high self-esteem, empathy,  
Revista Científica y Arbitrada de Ciencias Sociales y Trabajo Social ‘‘Tejedora’’: Vol. 4 (Núm. 7) (ene-jun 2021). ISSN: 2697-3626  
Pino-Lozada et al. (2021)  
development of essential tasks, which in the  
their children. Homoparental. - Made up of  
parents of the same sex and their offspring.  
Reconstructed. - Families newly formed with  
different individuals and their offspring or  
that of their partner after separation or  
divorce. De facto union. - Family systems  
with non-marital conjugal ties, with or  
without descendants. Polygamist. - Made up  
of a man and several women. Polyandrous. -  
Made up of a woman and several men.  
long term will generate individualisation in  
their functions, but at the same time  
provides a feeling of belonging (Minuchin,  
According to Oliva, E. and Villa, V. (2014) the  
family is an open natural system of human  
beings in different states of physical and  
mental maturation, in which individuals are  
related by consanguineous or affinity ties,  
gathered in one area determined with  
cultural and geographic patterns in common  
that allow satisfying basic physical and  
psychological needs of all members.  
Family Functions  
According to one of the traditional  
definitions, according to González (2008), it  
states that the following functions must be  
accomplished in the family nucleus:  
Types of family  
According to Fernández, T. and Ponce, L.  
1. Satisfy the affective needs of its members.  
2. Satisfy physical or subsistence needs. 3.  
Establish positive patterns of interpersonal  
relationships. 4. Allow the individual  
development of each of its members. 5.  
Promote the socialisation process. 6.  
Stimulate learning and creativity of its  
members. 7. Promote a system of values and  
ideologies. (p. 9)ç  
(2013) in society there is a fairly varied family  
typology, but from a general perspective the  
following types are distinguished: Nuclear. -  
Made up of father, mother and children.  
Extensive. - Made up of the previously  
described members and close blood  
relatives such as grandparents, cousins, etc.  
Expanded. - Made up of members of the  
nuclear family and individuals with ties of  
affinity but not consanguineous, such as  
friends or neighbours. Single-parent. - Made  
up of a single parent (father or mother) and  
While conceptual  
conception by Martin, M. and Tamayo, M.  
2013), determines that the following  
Revista Científica y Arbitrada de Ciencias Sociales y Trabajo Social ‘‘Tejedora’’: Vol. 4 (Núm. 7) (ene-jun 2021). ISSN: 2697-3626  
Family resilience in time of crisis  
functions are generated in the family  
concept of human survival given that the  
difficulties that are faced are managed to be  
defeated so that the same subject can regain  
his state of calm and tranquillity thanks to  
the search for solutions or coupling to  
situations. The resilience in the state of  
mental health is one issue quite important to  
apply in the family, the author Iglesias, EB  
Biological function. - Includes the  
procreation and care of children, family  
and emotional stability of the members.  
Economic function. - Understand the  
activities that allow obtaining a family  
budget to satisfy material needs, care  
and family health.  
(2006) explains that resilience is a state that  
involves a confrontation with the adversities  
that people show as an immediate response,  
for their well-being. The recovery of a  
mental balance of the person is thanks to the  
ability to maintain adaptive behaviours of  
stressful situations generated from the  
family or social bond.  
Cultural-spiritual function. - Implies  
cultural learning, recreation and the  
formation of certain spiritual conditions.  
Educational function.  
teaching speech,  
patterns and developing cognitive  
processes for learning skills.  
Bandura & Walters (1974) indicates that the  
person, the environment and behaviour are  
elements that are in permanent interaction  
and that learning occurs in a reciprocal way  
between these three elements. Besides, it  
mentions that human behaviour is not only  
the product of a stimulus or a reflection that  
can be positive or negative but that at the  
same time the observation and imitation of  
any behaviour help the individual to decide  
whether to behave in that way or not.  
According to Iglesias, EB (2006) The family  
and society are a fundamental part to  
generate resilience, according to the form of  
upbringing and support that they provide,  
that said, raising the family can also produce  
negative aspects in children or their  
According to Masten (1999), he proposes to  
take into consideration those traits of a  
person to allow himself to advance and  
adapt to situations of intense stress, he  
would also be called the father of the  
(Yanza, 2017, p. 18).  
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Masten & Obradovic (2006) "This new  
Also, at this stage, the anxiety and tension  
of the individual grow strongly leading to  
take strong decisions to solve the  
problem, such as the intake of alcohol,  
drugs and even suicide.  
paradigm explains that in recent years arose  
one renewed way of looking at the  
resilience, and not as a personal protective  
armour, but as a relational and eco-systemic  
gear that allows finding opportunities where  
stagnation or deterioration could be  
d) Fourth final phase: where the  
person may or may not be emotionally  
stable, it all depends on the person.  
Systemic Model  
Crisis intervention model  
In search of generating a comprehensive  
intervention of Social Work, a model based  
on systems theory was designed. Basically,  
the model emphasizes the principle that  
individuals, in order to achieve their goals  
and cope with their problems, need the  
support of immediate social systems of its  
Juan Jesús Viscarret (2007), divided into four  
phases the crisis intervention model:  
a) First impact phase: Also called the  
impact phase, in this phase the crisis is  
triggered where the individual enters a  
stage of confusion and anxiety, in  
response to this the individual reacts to  
traditional skills to solve problems, that is  
to say, these are the skills that each  
person has in the face of a crisis.  
According to Viscarret (2007), there are  
three types of basic systems:  
Resource systems, informal or  
natural: family, friends, neighbours, co-  
b) Second phase: Emergency skills: This  
refers to emerging skills where a quick  
and effective solution is sought.  
Formal systems: organizations to  
which one belongs as a member, such as  
community groups, unions, political  
parties, neighbourhood associations, etc.  
c) Third phase of the crisis: In this phase  
psychological first aid skills are triggered,  
where the important thing is emotional  
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Social systems such as schools,  
model has a global and comprehensive  
characterization regarding family structures  
and relationships due to the presence of  
various levels of action and observation.  
Bronfenbrenner (1987) points out the  
following typology of systems:  
hospitals, etc. (Viscarret, 2007, p. 274)  
In this context, Hernández (1991) expresses  
the need to contemplate the individual's  
means of development at the time of the  
case study, since this strategy ensures full  
knowledge of the reality experienced by the  
user. In addition, he alludes that this method  
is especially for the discipline of Social Work  
because social events and processes cannot  
be treated in isolation, but rather from the  
point of view of interaction.  
Microsystem: Contemplates the  
personal relationships of the individual,  
which have an impact on their immediate  
Mesosystem: Covers the connections  
between the previously consolidated  
Systemic - Ecological Model  
The ecological model starts from ecological  
theory, which studies “the relationships  
between organisms and environments. It  
tries to know how the species are capable of  
maintaining themselves using their  
environment, developing and progressing in  
it according to their own needs” (Viscarret,  
environments in which the individual  
does not have direct participation, but is  
affected by the decisions made in them.  
Macrosystem: Considered the most  
general development framework,  
including cultural and ideological  
007, p. 287). When due to deterioration or  
imbalances of one or more of the systems of  
the individual's context, everything that  
works within them usually has a negative  
effect since all the systems are interrelated;  
and everything that affects one has  
consequences on the rest. According to  
Fernández (2008), the systemic-ecological  
The echo systemic model raises the  
approach of the individual in his imaginary,  
where it is possible to show the multiple  
connections, organizations and contexts in  
which he operates, in order to visualize a  
broader spectrum and develop an  
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intervention plan that addresses the issues  
only occur within the home but as the author  
Bronfenbrenner (1987) states, how the  
person perceives, learns, and interrelates is  
through the environment that surrounds  
him and how he relates to it.  
necessary (Fernández, 2008).  
This approach integrally takes the human  
being to enhance their skills and abilities.  
The acquisition of these aspects does not  
Table 1. Phases of investigation.  
Use the  
models to  
Bibliographic review on issues  
related to resilience.  
Analyse the intervention models equipments.  
Researchers of the 1 month  
present proposal.  
the that allow to potentiate skills and  Internet.  
abilities to face situations that cause  
instability in the family.  
Initial Phase  
Propose an intervention based on  
the systemic model, crisis care,  
Execute a series of workshops based  
Address the  
key points to  
Researchers of the 1 month  
present proposal.  
on Self-esteem,  
Independence, Ability to relate,  
Humor, Creativity,  
for critical  
Development resilience.  
Morality, Ability  
thinking. (Melillo, 2002)  
Creation of a program that addresses  
a series of workshops that addresses  Technological  
each point that is exposed in the equipments.  
of the present  
that improve development phase.  
Work in a multidisciplinary way with contacts.  
 Carry out a pilot plan with the title  
school of family resilience.  
Team of the  
educational Unit  
DECE (l Department  
of Student  
Final Phase  
Identify cases that present risks and  
make use of social work tools to  
provide intervention and follow-up.  
Evaluate the impact of the  
workshops carried out to implement  
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Family resilience in time of crisis  
functioning to keep it healthy and  
competent under stress conditions: for  
example, family celebrations, shared time or  
family routines and traditions. These factors  
act by mitigating or even neutralizing the  
impact of risk factors on the family's  
evolutionary trajectory” (Kalil, 2003).  
The purpose of this proposal is to develop an  
educational program for family resilience,  
where those involved strengthen or acquire  
new skills. The expected results are focused  
on mitigating risk factors, when they are not  
properly solved cause dysfunctionality and  
even mental disorders that hinder to  
individuals to continue with their activities,  
being the trigger for the affected people to  
cause a systemic imbalance to people within  
their family context. Moreover, the need  
arises because several events currently  
appear that evidence the regenerative  
resilience (skills or incomplete coping  
mechanisms) as the only response to  
adversity, thus it is essential to emphasise  
social learning in environments educational-  
family which are two environments that are  
interrelated and could facilitate holistic  
learning for teachers, parents and students  
for the improvement of interpersonal  
relationships such as affective bonds.  
Family resilience is a key aspect to overcome  
adversity that occurs in the life cycle, and the  
changes that occur when families lack skills  
or strategies to face counterproductive  
problems in the family dynamics that are  
known as risk factors causing vulnerability  
and stress being aspects that exceed family  
resources, the same that generate a  
multiproblematic (abuse, poverty, breaking  
of family ties, addictions, and emotional  
affectations such as depression, stress  
among others) causing the stagnation or  
organization, and mental health, therefore,  
the need to generate family resources  
focused on the reorganization of meanings  
and behaviors to recover homeostasis in  
functionality, consequently the need to  
create educational programs in the various  
areas that the person interacts with and are  
aimed at balancing the mental health of  
social actors, reducing the risks or  
“The family resilience approach suggests  
that there are protective factors whose  
definition points to the shieldfunction  
that certain variables fulfill on family  
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consequences left by adverse situations, this  
being an obstacle to human development.  
to dangers that arise can cause this  
homeostasis to be lost and ultimately  
professionals linked to education, what  
strategies are we developing for the post  
(later) events that require mental health  
The family is the main support  
network when an unexpected situation  
occurs that causes imbalance, which is  
why intra-family resources to respond to  
adverse conditions is fundamental.  
In addition to working on the  
enhancement of capacities or abilities in  
a general way, it is necessary to intervene  
in the study of individualised cases to give  
adequate and effective forecast in  
situations of vulnerability where the  
social actor is.  
The subsidiary group that does not  
have skills or abilities to solve problems  
that destabilise its functionality may have  
long-term impacts in their mental health,  
thus the need for people to acquire these  
skills to transform risk factors to  
protective factors, which can prevent or  
cushion such painful circumstances in the  
adaptation in the family.  
The multiplicity of family problems in  
the educational community must be  
identified in order to work specifically on  
the situations, but this does not mean  
giving less importance to other scenarios,  
but through professional help, working  
individually when an alteration is  
detected concerning the educational-  
family context.  
Learning not focused solely on the  
acquisition of technical knowledge, but  
with a holistic approach where all those  
involved are beneficiaries, educational  
practices must constantly link society to  
mitigate problems that cause dysfunction  
in times of crisis.  
For the intervention of the program  
to be meaningful, after its execution,  
there must be an impact evaluation to  
The adversities that people suffer in  
their life cycle or in the environment due  
Revista Científica y Arbitrada de Ciencias Sociales y Trabajo Social ‘‘Tejedora’’: Vol. 4 (Núm. 7) (ene-jun 2021). ISSN: 2697-3626  
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