Revista Científica y Arbitrada de Ciencias Sociales y Trabajo Social ‘‘Tejedora’’: Vol. 4 (Núm. 7) (ene-jun 2021). ISSN: 2697-3626  
Self-esteem, resilience, and sustainable contributions for the productive development of the elderly who undertake in El  
Oro  
SELF-ESTEEM, RESILIENCE, AND SUSTAINABLE CONTRIBUTIONS FOR THE PRODUCTIVE  
DEVELOPMENT OF THE ELDERLY WHO UNDERTAKE IN EL ORO  
AUTOESTIMA, RESILIENCIA Y APORTES SOSTENIBLES PARA EL DESARROLLO PRODUCTIVO DEL  
ADULTO MAYOR QUE EMPRENDE EN EL ORO  
1
Bohorquez Gardenia  
1
Bojorque Erick  
1
1
Profesor Titular de la Universidad Laica Eloy Alfaro de Manabí, ULEAM. Manta, Ecuador.  
jorge.bojorque@uleam.edu.ec, https://orcid.org/0000-0001-6179-5423  
ABSTRACT:  
This article aims to determine the importance of self-esteem, resilient activities, and sustainable contributions for  
the productive development of the elderly who undertake in the Autonomous Decentralized Parish Governments of  
the province of El Oro. The development of the study was supported by documentary sources of Previous research  
that served as a theoretical foundation that allowed this research to be supported on a vulnerable population known  
as older adults. The research methodology used was a mixed intersubjective approach, with a type of analytical  
study and a deductive method. It was possible to work with a representative sample of 366 older adults who benefit  
from the programs and projects promoted by the GADP in the El Oro province. Surveys techniques were used mainly,  
as well as interviews and when inserting the information collected in the statistical program SPSS25. The following  
results were obtained: 53.3% of older adults are people who do feel useful at this stage of their lives. 77% said they  
always participate and undertake in the programs developed by the GADP in the province. A considerable group of  
6
4.2% indicated that they were in unstable economic situations. As a conclusion, it can be known that there are  
social public policies benefiting the elderly, however, all the duties that society has in relation to the elderly as a  
priority group and all the rights that people of the elderly have should be promoted in a more visible way the third  
Age.  
Keywords: Older adult, self-esteem, resilience, entrepreneurship, sustainable contribution.  
RESUMEN:  
El presente artículo tiene como objetivo determinar la importancia de la autoestima, actividades resilientes y aportes  
sostenibles para el desarrollo productivo del adulto mayor que emprende en los Gobiernos Autónomos  
Descentralizados Parroquiales de la provincia de El Oro. El desarrollo de estudio se basó de fuentes documentales  
de investigaciones previas que sirvieron como fundamento teórico que permitió sustentar esta investigación sobre  
una población vulnerable conocida como adultos mayores. La metodología de investigación que se utilizó fue de  
enfoque y naturaleza cuantitativa, con un tipo de estudio analítico y método deductivo. Se pudo trabajar con una  
muestra representativa de 366 adultos mayores que son beneficiados de los programas y proyectos promovidos por  
los GADP en la provincia El Oro. Se utilizó la técnica de encuesta principalmente y se logró insertar la información  
recolectada en el programa estadístico SPSS25 se obtuvieron los siguientes resultados: El 53,3% de los adultos  
mayores son personas que si se sienten útiles en esta etapa de sus vidas. El 77% manifestó siempre participar y  
emprender en los programas desarrollados por los GADP en la provincia. Un grupo considerable del 64,2% indicó  
encontrarse en situaciones económicas inestables. Como conclusión se puede saber que existen políticas publicas  
sociales beneficiando a los adultos mayores, sin embargo, se debe promover de forma más visible todos los deberes  
que posee la sociedad en relación con los adultos mayores como grupo prioritario y todos los derechos que poseen  
las personas de la tercera edad.  
Palabras clave: Adulto mayor, autoestima, resiliencia, emprendimiento, aporte sostenible.  
Recibido: 28 de septiembre de 2020; Aceptado: 04 de enero de 2021; Publicado: 08 de enero de 2021.  
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Bohorquez & Bojorque (2021)  
1
. INTRODUCTION  
The present research is focused on the study  
physical, psychological, and social changes  
that elderly people experience. In addition,  
it is opportune to point out what the United  
Nations Organization (UN, 2018) indicated  
when establishing that "there are 600  
million people over 60 years old in the world,  
a figure that will double by 2025, it is  
estimated that by 2050 there will be more  
people over 60 than children under 15 years  
old". This makes this social phenomenon to  
be taken more into account as the time  
passes by.  
of the self-esteem, resilient activities and  
sustainable contributions of the elderly who  
undertake in the Autonomous Decentralized  
Parish Governments (ADPG) of the province  
of El Oro, during the year 2020. This is a  
research constituted This is research  
consisting of several relevant dimensions  
and all directed around the elderly, it is much  
needed within the field of study in social  
sciences and social work.  
In this regard, it is important to define what  
this stage of life known as old age or third  
However, it can be considered that older  
adults in old age experience a series of  
experiences and adversities that can  
sometimes make them feel negative feelings  
and emotions that can affect their self-  
esteem and the quality of life that many of  
them may have and this is due to all those  
very remarkable physical, psychological and  
social changes, added to facing adverse  
situations as experiencing the death of loved  
ones, physical and sensory limitations, the  
decline of professional status, among others,  
evidencing what Santos et al (2019) said  
when they stated "In old age, resilience is the  
ability to face, adapt and respond positively  
to changes that occur with age". (p.2).  
age  
symbolizes, which  
begins at  
approximately 60 years of age in the life of  
the human being according to the World  
Health Organization (2018), which states  
that population aging can be considered a  
success for public health policies and  
socioeconomic development, but also  
constitutes a challenge for society, which  
must adapt to it in order to maximize the  
health and functional capacity of the elderly,  
as well as their social participation and  
security (WHO, 2018).  
When this stage of life manifests as a social  
challenge, it can be noticed that it is raised  
from this vision because there are many  
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Self-esteem, resilience, and sustainable contributions for the productive development of the elderly who undertake in El  
Oro  
It must also be understood that aging is a  
reflects the need for this research, since it  
focuses on the different factors that are  
related to the quality of life experienced by  
older adults in El Oro province, considering  
sources of documentary and empirical  
information in relation to this research  
about the elderly.  
natural and irreversible process, not a  
pathological process, nor a disease, nor a  
mere involution, susceptible aspects of  
medical or psychological treatment, this  
being a very necessary approach pointed out  
by the Economic Commission for Latin  
America and the Caribbean (ECLAC, 2018).  
Through all that has been manifested in the  
experience of the aging already symbolizes  
resilience in the elderly.  
The objective of this study is to determine  
the importance of self-esteem, resilient  
activities, and sustainable contributions to  
the productive development of the elderly  
that are undertaken in the Decentralized  
Autonomous Parish Governments of the  
province of El Oro  
For all these reasons, published and social  
policies have emerged with the intention of  
covering the needs and guaranteeing the  
human rights of many older adults who are  
in a stage of prioritized attention. In this  
regard, laws presented in the national  
territory can be observed, such as the  
Constitution of the Republic of Ecuador  
In relation to the definition of older adults,  
while the WHO and the UN consider them to  
be over 60 years of age, there is a small  
change in the Ecuadorian national territory  
and according to the Constitution of Ecuador  
(2008) which establishes in its Article 36  
(2008) in Article 36 "Those persons who have  
"
Older adults will receive prioritized and  
reached the age of sixty-five shall be  
considered older adults". (p.30).  
specialized attention in the public and  
private sectors, especially in the fields of  
social and economic inclusion, and  
protection against violence". (p.30).  
Considering these multiple international and  
national definitions of the elderly, it is  
necessary to emphasize that at this stage of  
life the experiences, that are full of changes,  
are very noticeable and start since the  
beginning of aging.  
Around these laws that govern public and  
social policies, rural ADPGs must guarantee  
the rights of priority groups, a vital issue that  
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It is fundamental to broaden the definition  
of aging and what resilience symbolizes,  
taking into account the author Uriarte (2014)  
when defining:  
resilience and to be examples for the whole  
society in which their members must be  
dedicated to caring for them and treating  
them with respect. It is also very opportune  
to point out what self-esteem represents  
and how it is visualized in aging, being able  
to consider this perception as "an important  
indicator of health and well-being, generally  
defined as a feeling that can be positive or  
negative, manifested as a result of the  
valorization on characteristics and own  
potentialities, which determines feelings of  
satisfaction or dissatisfaction with the  
personality". (De Armas et al, 2019)  
Aging is a stage in the life cycle that is taking  
on great importance in developed societies,  
in part due to the increase in life expectancy.  
Increasingly, people are living their old age  
to the fullest and long-lived people are  
developing a remarkable subjective quality  
of life  
Resilience is the construct that calls for the  
process by which people realize a positive  
integration, despite the difficulties and  
limitations that occur in old age, and reach  
the end of life aware of themselves, with  
emotional well-being, satisfied with their  
lives. Thus, resilience is a facet of aging itself.  
In terms of conceptualization, it is important  
that adults develop and perceive themselves  
in a positive way so that they can face  
obstacles and challenges in their life  
experiences on their own. It is fundamental  
to consider autonomy and self-confidence as  
the main elements that feed self-esteem in  
the elderly.  
(p. 68-69).  
Another definition of resilience is defined as  
the ability to face, adapt to and respond  
positively to the changes that occur with  
Another aspect that should be considered  
regarding this phenomenon of social aging is  
that the Economic Commission for Latin  
America and the Caribbean (ECLAC, 2018)  
pointed out that with the passage of time we  
will see the emergence of aging societies and  
economies with "accelerated aging of the  
aging” (Santos et al, 2019, pág. 2).  
Regarding Santos' statement, we can notice  
the adaptation that older people have in this  
stage of their lives, which is full of many  
experiences and adverse situations that lead  
them to be human beings with great  
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Self-esteem, resilience, and sustainable contributions for the productive development of the elderly who undertake in El  
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population will become the most relevant  
of the Elderly (2019) that establishes in its  
Art. 16:  
demographic trend in the region. From that  
moment on, changes in the age structure will  
be dominated by the dynamics of the older  
generations" (p.34).  
To guarantee the integral protection that the  
State, society and the family must provide to  
the elderly, with the purpose of achieving  
the effective enjoyment of their rights,  
duties and responsibilities; they will have the  
right to access resources and opportunities  
in the areas of work, economics, politics,  
The information provided by this organism  
allows us to understand that, as years go by,  
the most common group of people in social  
contexts are the elderly and even more so  
than young people or children. This reality  
can be noticed considerably in the western  
countries like Italy, Spain, France, and others  
of the European continent, being also very  
close the countries of the American  
continent mainly countries like Cuba,  
Canada and Uruguay that also have a  
population that ages quickly, in this group  
we also find Ecuador.  
education,  
culture,  
spirituality  
and  
recreation, as well as the perfection of their  
skills, competencies and potential, in order  
to achieve their personal and community  
development that will allow them to  
promote their personal autonomy. (p. 14).  
According to this law, the State, society, and  
families have obligations that must be  
fulfilled as a manifestation of respect for the  
human rights of older adults, who in many  
cases are not treated as established in this  
law.  
Due to the notable growth of the population  
of older adults, who in many environments  
tend to have their human rights violated,  
public and social policies aimed at the  
protection and fulfillment of the norms in  
which the social duties and rights are  
established, being considered in Ecuador  
apart from the Constitution other laws and  
norms established, such as the Organic Law  
In addition, the Ministry of Economic and  
Social Inclusion (MIES, 2013) established  
that the country should "promote socially  
and economically inclusive aging that will  
improve the living conditions of older adults  
and generate their autonomy and  
integration into the family, community and  
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society" (p. 23). This is another body that  
emphasizes the duty of an entire society and  
of governments, which through their  
officials must guarantee what is established  
in the regulations.  
that they can have a dignified life with  
quality and warmth.  
Additionally, the lack of economic resources  
are experiences that most elderly people  
must experience, and it can be indicated  
"The lack of income due to the weakness of  
the pension systems causes many of the  
elderly to be forced to continue working  
beyond retirement to earn extra income".  
Also, reference can be made to the Organic  
Code of Territorial Organization, (COOTAD,  
2
017) when establishing in its Article 249:  
The budget of the decentralized  
autonomous government will not be  
approved if it does not allocate at least ten  
percent (10%) of its non-tax revenues to  
finance the planning and execution of social  
programs for the attention of priority  
(Betancourt, 2020). This study shows that in  
their daily life experiences many older adults  
are having their rights violated, many by not  
receiving pensions with a fair income and  
others who despite being older adults with  
advanced age do not receive any retirement  
or pension benefits from the State.  
groups. (p.87).  
Based on the above, it  
is understood that the obligations of the  
ADPG are to promote programs and policies  
that benefit the most vulnerable groups, as  
indicated by COOTAD, the budget allocated  
by the State must be invested in the  
implementation of projects that benefit  
priority groups such as the elderly, however,  
in many cases, such estimates are not  
sufficient.  
However, despite many adversities it is again  
important to emphasize the resilience that  
many older adults demonstrate as noted by  
the author (Buran, 2017) in his study that  
most older adults have high levels of  
resilience, influenced largely by their  
lifestyles.  
Finally, it is relevant to refer to the quality of  
life experienced by older adults, which is  
considered as "the evaluation that people  
make based on their personal experiences in  
various aspects that are linked to  
Therefore, it is very necessary to review the  
budget for the creation of programs, policies  
and projects that protect these groups so  
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Self-esteem, resilience, and sustainable contributions for the productive development of the elderly who undertake in El  
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satisfaction" (Peralta e tal, 2018). It is the  
sum of that well-being and personal  
satisfaction as it is also stated (Aponte, 2015)  
defining that it is intertwined with what they  
can feel and that conformity and perception  
of the contexts in which they are, being. It is  
important that they feel productive and with  
great desire of personal improvement.  
probability sampling was used with one of  
the statistical formulas presented with a 95%  
confidence level and 5% margin of error,  
establishing a representative sample of 366  
senior citizens participating in the study.  
c) Area of Study  
The research was carried out in the different  
parishes of El Oro province.  
d) Techniques Employed  
2
. METHODOLOGY  
The main techniques used were the survey,  
with its respective questionnaire, the  
interview and direct observation.  
The study that was developed is of mixed  
approach of hermeneutic character with  
complementation of qualitative and  
quantitative research.  
e) Statistical Analysis  
a) Methodology Design.  
The results obtained in the research have  
been processed through a reliable statistical  
analysis generated from the insertion of the  
data obtained from the surveys applied in  
SPSS 25 program, which can be observed in  
the statistical charts indicated in the results.  
In the development of the research, the  
deductive and analytical-synthetic method  
was applied, which allowed initially to go  
from the macro to the micro, with initial  
collection of information sources that served  
as theoretical support to achieve a direct  
study on the older adults of El Oro province  
with sufficient foundation.  
b) Research Participants  
With a total of 50 ADPGs that have  
entrepreneurial projects, among all these  
7
,500 senior citizens attended, on whom a  
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Table 2. Resilience Analysis in Older Adults  
3
. RESULTS  
You feel like a useful person at this stage of your life  
Table 1. Identification of Self-Esteem in Older Adults.  
Somet  
imes  
Sex  
Yes  
No Total  
Female Male  
Total  
6
7
7
8
5 - 69  
0 - 74  
5 - 79  
0 - 84  
6,0% 20,2% 4,9% 31,1%  
7,7% 5,2% 3,3% 16,1%  
5,2% 6,0% 6,0% 17,2%  
6,3% 7,4% 3,3% 16,9%  
3,6% 14,5% 0,5% 18,6%  
Sometimes  
Frequenc Almost  
8,7%  
1,6%  
8,7%  
17,5%  
2,2%  
Age  
range  
0,5%  
y of high Never  
self-  
Almost  
10,1%  
22,1%  
32,2%  
Older than 85  
esteem  
Always  
Total  
28,7% 53,3% 18,0% 100,0  
%
Never  
0,5%  
27,6%  
48,6%  
0,8%  
1,4%  
Always  
19,1%  
46,7%  
Prepared by: Members of the Gender Research  
Project. (2020).  
Total  
51,4% 100,0%  
To be able to reach this stage of life known  
as old age and face many changes and life  
experiences demonstrates the resilience  
that older people possess, who are  
represented by 31.1% between 65 and 69  
years of age, followed by a percentage of  
Prepared by: Members of the Gender Research  
Project. (2020).  
5
1.4% of the older participants in this study  
belong to the male gender, while 48.6% are  
of the female gender, and a very minimal  
difference can be observed in the number of  
people between both genders. In relation to  
the frequency of feeling like human beings in  
this stage of their lives with high self-esteem,  
fortunately 46.7% responded that with this  
perception and feeling they always feel, very  
followed by a group of 32.2% who feel with  
high self-esteem almost always and a group  
of 17.5% who have this evaluation only  
sometimes.  
1
8.6% of older adults who are approaching  
longevity with more than 85 years of age,  
another significant group of participants  
represented by 17.2% are between 75 and  
7
9 years of age. In relation to the experience  
of feeling and valuing themselves as useful  
people at this stage of their lives, the  
majority of 53.3% responded affirmatively,  
which again demonstrates the resilience of  
older adults, sometimes they feel useful  
2
8.7%, however there is a minority but  
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significant 18.0% of people who no longer  
productive programs, 64.2% of the senior  
citizens surveyed indicated that they do not  
have economic stability and a minority group  
of 35.8% stated that they do have stability in  
their economy.  
feel useful because they are in old age.  
Table 3. Definition of Sustainable Contributions to  
Economic Growth.  
Has participated in inclusive ADPG programs  
where he has felt productive  
Almo  
st  
4
. DISCUSSION  
Some Neve  
The results that have been obtained in this  
stage of the research allow us to  
demonstrate with empirically sustainable  
arguments what has been proposed in  
previous studies related to the influence of  
self-esteem and resilient activities of the  
elderly that they undertake in the  
times  
r
Always Total  
Considers  
that he/she  
possesses  
economic  
stability  
No 3,0% 13,9 47,3% 64,2%  
%
Yes 3,0% 3,0% 29,8% 35,8%  
Total  
6,0% 16,9% 77,0% 100,0%  
decentralized  
autonomous  
parish  
Prepared by: Members of the Gender Research  
governments of El Oro province.  
Project. (2020).  
It can be observed that if there is a  
continuous participation and integration of  
older adults in the inclusive programs,  
worked and promoted by the decentralized  
autonomous governments (ADPG) in which  
It was possible to obtain an investigation  
with results posed from several dimensions,  
being these initially the self-esteem of the  
people in their old age, their resilience  
defined as that capacity to overcome  
adversity and also those contributions with  
entrepreneurship that are generated mostly  
7
7.0% of older adults have always  
participated feel productive and with desire  
of personal improvement, another group of  
by older  
adults thanks to the  
1
6.9% stated that they have almost never  
implementation of public and social policies  
aimed at guaranteeing human rights in this  
stage of life in which the elderly must be  
treated with equality, priority attention and  
participated in these programs and a  
minority group of 6% has participated at  
times. Even though they are participating in  
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social inclusion, and for these reasons the  
different governments have a leading role in  
the search for such guarantees for the  
elderly.  
confidence are fundamental to achieve a  
high self-esteem, with personal satisfaction,  
being determining factors to achieve in part  
quality of life.  
Many older adults represented by 46.7%  
always reported high self-esteem, which in  
part is positive, however a minority group  
that totals 3.6% indicated that they almost  
never or never experience the well-being  
and satisfaction of feeling with positive  
perception and high self-esteem at this stage  
of their lives and this is largely due to that  
series of physical changes, psychological and  
social that so many human beings  
experience at one stage of their lives,  
nostalgia for the past, loss of contact with  
family members, health impairment, loss of  
economic stability and more, which shows  
that this is a stage that is also characterized  
by the resilience of people. Based on the  
above, it is important to make an analogy of  
this study in relation to the proposals of  
authors such as De Armas, et al, (2019) y  
Santos et al, (2019).  
Santos et al, (2019) show what has been  
found in this study and that is the  
remarkable resilience and overcoming of  
adversity that many older adults experience  
in their old age. The aspects that have been  
manifested allow us to demonstrate that  
being a stage of life in which the human  
being experiences many adversities is also a  
stage of vulnerability, and this, to a large  
extent, is due to the family and social  
contexts of older adults in which we  
unfortunately often find violations of their  
human rights with a lack of appreciation,  
integration and social inclusion, since by the  
vision of many people with a lack of social  
conscience they are seen as family and social  
burdens.  
In the face of so many adversities and  
observed needs, public and social policies  
promoted by international organizations  
such as the WHO, the UN, and ECLAC have  
emerged, seeking to follow up on a global  
and continental level in order to manifest  
the reality experienced by millions of older  
adults over time, towards whom respect,  
The authors De Armas, et al (2019)  
emphasize that self-esteem is a clear  
indicator of health, well-being, and  
satisfaction of people in different stages of  
life, pointing out that autonomy and self-  
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Self-esteem, resilience, and sustainable contributions for the productive development of the elderly who undertake in El  
Oro  
inclusion and the guarantee of rights are  
sought, also, the attention to the needs in  
the national territory are promoted by laws  
such as the Constitution of Ecuador (2008),  
the organic law of older adults, among other  
norms that seek to have governments such  
as the decentralized autonomous ones fulfill  
their functions and allocate at least 10.0%  
for people who require priority attention.  
autonomous governments of El Oro  
province, being able to demonstrate and  
achieve the objective of the study.  
5. CONCLUSIONS  
Self-esteem has been identified as a  
fundamental element for the productive  
development of the older adults who are  
continuously undertaking in the province of  
El Oro through support and active  
participation in the programs of the  
Fortunately, the majority of older adults,  
represented by 77.0%, have always  
participated in ADPG programs and feel  
productive and have a desire to improve  
themselves, however, it is also notorious  
what was stated by Betancourt (2020), who  
pointed out that there is a lack of economic  
income due to failures in the social support  
systems, as can be seen with the pensions  
and retirements in which many do not have  
it or receive very little income that is not  
enough to cover their basic needs. This  
situation was expressed by 64.2% of the  
decentralized  
governments.  
autonomous  
parish  
It has been possible to analyze that  
overcoming adversities at this stage of life  
demonstrates resilience and self-esteem as  
factors that are highly intertwined with the  
well-being and satisfaction that determine  
the quality of life of older adults.  
It is significant the definition of the influence  
of sustainable contributions and productive  
development of many older adults in this  
stage of their lives, however it is worrying to  
observe that most of the participants of the  
study in the province of El Oro indicated to  
have economic instability.  
older  
adults,  
demonstrating  
what  
Betancourt pointed out.  
This study has made it possible to determine  
the importance of self-esteem, resilience  
and sustainable contributions for the older  
adult who undertakes in the decentralized  
Decentralized Autonomous Governments,  
remembering the duty they must fulfill  
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Bohorquez & Bojorque (2021)  
according to what is established by the laws  
in Ecuador, it is important that they consider  
the guarantee of human rights that the  
elderly possess and the continuous struggle  
for a fair budget with which they can cover  
the needs of the elderly, through programs,  
projects and proposals that seek the social  
inclusion of this person and respect for their  
human rights.  
Aponte, V. (agosto de 2015). Calidad de vida  
en la tercera edad. Scielo, 13(2), 152-  
1
82.  
Betancourt, D. (2020). Trabajo para adultos  
mayores en Ecuador: ¿por qué lo  
hacen  
y
que  
problemáticas  
enfrentan? Trabajo de titulación  
presentado en conformidad con los  
requisitos para optar el título de  
Licenciado en Periodismo, 1-39.  
Burán, A. (2017). La resiliencia y la relación  
con la calidad de vida en adultos  
mayores. Tesis de Licenciatura en  
Psicología, 1-40. Obtenido de  
http://bibliotecadigital.uca.edu.ar/r  
epositorio/tesis/resiliencia-relacion-  
calidad-vida.pdf  
For young people in society, you must  
remember that at one time the older people  
you see today, at one period of their lives  
were also young and came to this stage of  
life known as old age, in which there are  
many changes experienced and they are  
invited to have a culture of humanity,  
respect and empathy towards older people,  
because as time goes by many young people  
will also find themselves in old age.  
COOTAD. (2017). Código Orgánico de  
Organización Territorial, Autonomía  
y Descentralización. Quito: Registro  
Oficial Suplemento 303.  
CEPAL. (2018). Envejecimiento, Personas  
Mayores y Agenda para el Desarrollo  
Sostenible,  
Santiago de Chile.  
Naciones  
Unidas,  
BIBLIOGRAPHIC REFERENCES  
Asamblea Nacional Constituyente (2008),  
Constitución de la República del  
Ecuador. (2008), Art. 36, sección  
primera, Montecristi, Ecuador.  
De Armas, N., Alba, L., & Endo, J. (2019).  
Enfoque salutogénico en el estudio  
de la autoestima del adulto mayor.  
EDUMECENTRO, 11(3), 282-288.  
Asamblea Nacional Constituyente, (2019),  
Ley Orgánica de las Personas Adultas  
Mayores. Art. 16, Quito, Ecuador.  
Ministerio de Inclusión Económica y Social  
MIES, (2013) Ciudadanía Activa y  
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Oro  
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https://www.who.int/es/news-  
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