Revista Científica y Arbitrada de Ciencias Sociales y Trabajo Social ‘‘Tejedora’’: Vol. 4 (Núm. 7) (ene-jun 2021). ISSN: 2697-3626  
Gender perspective and influences of barriers for participation of Ecuadorian Educators in positions of power  
Altamirano-Altamirano Silvia Jovanna1  
Gender perspective, its representations and influences have become barriers that make it impossible to reach those  
glass ceilings” which are attainable for only certain privileged groups. On the other side, perceptions that become  
seemingly unavoidable realities and even family itself have become “sticky floors”, making women feel guilty at the  
time of decision-making and participate in gender equity. One of the main objectives of this investigation is to  
identify the perception in female academic staff concerning the existence of institutional barriers for access to  
positions of power and decision-making in the universities where they work in two regions of the country: highlands  
and coast. The access and permanent exercise in academic positions of power and decision-making for Ecuadorian  
University Educators is the contribution of this investigation, using the methodological advantages of surveys and  
interviews, for women who achieved said positions or those who attempted to, desisted from, or resigned from  
them. The perceptions that are culturally built in the people’s minds become a part of everyday life, in turn  
reproducing underdevelopment, entertaining the distracted masses with infighting, while others reap all benefits  
and the joy of living in a world made of and with respect.  
Keywords: Perception, equity, gender, culture, inclusion, sustainability, family, education, labor.  
La perspectiva de Género, sus manifestaciones e influencias vienen a convertirse en las barreras, que impiden  
acceder a esos techos de cristal, que están solo para cierto grupo de privilegiados, por otro lado, esas percepciones  
que se convierten en realidades, aparentemente insalvables, la familia que se convierten en esos suelos pegajosos,  
sintiendo culpabilidad a la hora de tomar decisiones y participar con equidad de género. Uno de los objetivos de la  
investigación es detectar la percepción de las académicas sobre la existencia de barreras institucionales para el  
acceso a cargos de decisión y poder en la universidad a la que se encuentran vinculadas en dos regiones del país:  
sierra y costa. El acceso y el ejercicio permanente en los puestos de poder y decisión académica de las Docentes  
Ecuatorianas Universitarias, es el aporte de esta investigación, utilizando las bondades de la metodología de la  
encuesta y la entrevista, a las mujeres que lograron acceder o las que intentaron, desistieron o renunciaron al cargo.  
Las percepciones que culturalmente trabajan en las mentes y se convierten en el diario vivir, reproduciendo el  
subdesarrollo entreteniendo a la masa distraída, en peleas internas, mientras otros gozan de las bondades y alegrías  
de vivir en un mundo de y con respeto.  
Palabras clave: Percepción, equidad, género, cultura, inclusion, sostenibilidad, familia, educación, trabajo.  
Recibido: 28 de septiembre de 2020; Aceptado: 04 de enero de 2021; Publicado: 08 de enero de 2021.  
Revista Científica y Arbitrada de Ciencias Sociales y Trabajo Social ‘‘Tejedora’’: Vol. 4 (Núm. 7) (ene-jun 2021). ISSN: 2697-3626  
Altamirano-Altamirano (2021)  
Perception, the mental process of the  
human being that has always awakened  
interest in investigation, was historically  
studied and defined for the first time in the  
Gestalt Psychology field as the ideas that a  
person or group may have about a particular  
subject or topic are affected by psychic  
processes. Thus, it is defined as follows.  
permanent act of conceptualization. The  
events of the outside world are organized by  
means of category judgments that assign a  
quality that best represents a number of  
objects.” This means that people give a  
meaning to objects, animals and things  
depending on several aspects, based off  
cultural context, social and family  
environments, ideologies and emotions  
related to the subject.  
“The cognitive process of consciousness that  
consist in the acknowledgement,  
interpreting and meaning-assignation for  
the creation of any judgment pertaining  
sensations obtained from a physical and  
social environment, with the intervention of  
other psychic processes which include  
learning, memory and symbolization.”  
Vargas Melgarejo, 1994.p.48)  
In order to choose a more focused approach  
for the issues at hand, it is necessary to  
define gender equity as one of the important  
subjects to study. This particular social  
subject has been on the rise during recent  
Equity refers to the need to provide every  
individual with the corresponding amounts  
of what they deserve and need depending  
on their conditions. It is important to  
mention that there is a considerable  
difference between equity and equality, as  
equality refers only to the idea of providing  
individuals with the same amount of  
something, regardless of their own needs  
and merits. From this, it is possible to  
establish a definition in relation to “gender”  
Consequently, not every person will have the  
same ideas, feelings or thoughts concerning  
something or someone, as the perception  
varies considerably between  
every human being. This is because human  
beings tend to comprehend and remember  
events, depending on the emotions that  
they may feel.  
According to (Oviedo, 2004. p. 89.  
“Perception can be understood as a  
Revista Científica y Arbitrada de Ciencias Sociales y Trabajo Social ‘‘Tejedora’’: Vol. 4 (Núm. 7) (ene-jun 2021). ISSN: 2697-3626  
Gender perspective and influences of barriers for participation of Ecuadorian Educators in positions of power  
and analyze it as a single unit for  
female”; this means that both would have  
the same rights, responsibilities, and  
opportunities regardless of their gender at  
birth. Thus, it is proposed that the needs,  
Historically, according to (Scott, 1986.p.3)  
gender was a term proposed by those who  
claimed that the knowledge held by women  
would bring a paramount transformation for  
the paradigms of this area of knowledge.  
Feminist scholars soon stated that studies  
made by women would not only bring light  
on new subjects, but also force a critical  
reconsideration of the premises and  
standards for existing academic work. This  
means that the very definition of this word  
was brought into existence by women,  
geared towards seeking inclusion and  
expecting greater deeds, as is it necessary to  
start creating new conceptualizations in the  
requirements and priorities of both genders  
are considered, acknowledging, and giving  
every of them the importance that they  
justly deserve. On the other hand, (UNESCO,  
2012. p. 106) refers to gender equity as the  
impartial treatment between men and  
women based on the individual needs that  
they may have, including all responsibilities,  
rights, and possibilities to attain a higher  
social development by means of the  
implementation of policies that make up for  
previous flaws at a historical level.  
However, how can we identify a situation  
where gender equality or equity does not  
exist? It is possible to define Violence  
Against Women according to (UNESCO,  
minds of people, as well as the modification  
and adaptation of the concepts involved to  
promote growth and social changes.  
012. p. 106) as any act of violence based on  
It is necessary to state what can be  
the victim being of the female gender, which  
has or may have a harmful result or causes  
physical, psychological, or sexual suffering,  
including threats of any type, arbitrary  
deprivation of liberty; referring to work or  
school environments for sexual harassment,  
domestic violence, and rape.  
understood with “gender equality” and  
“gender equity”, as their definitions are  
close in meaning but not entirely similar.  
Thus, according to (UNESCO, 2012. p. 105),  
equality is defined as “equality of rights,  
responsibilities, and opportunities for  
women and men, children both male and  
Revista Científica y Arbitrada de Ciencias Sociales y Trabajo Social ‘‘Tejedora’’: Vol. 4 (Núm. 7) (ene-jun 2021). ISSN: 2697-3626  
Altamirano-Altamirano (2021)  
Due to this, one of the most viable solutions  
development of projects for female  
inclusion, as the objectives set by the United  
for reducing violence against women and a  
means to place them in charge of enforcing  
their rights is by being socially active in the  
empowerment of individuals. This would  
make every person responsible for their own  
lives and widen their options and  
opportunities to grow in any area that they  
so desire.  
Nations refer to sustainable development at  
an economic, environmental, and social  
level. The world and the various member  
countries of the UN are trying to support one  
another and provide ideas for the efficient  
fulfilment of all said objectives pertaining  
gender equality by year 2030. Objective  
number 5 according to (CEPAL: United  
Nations, 2016. p. 17) refers to seeking  
gender equality in as many countries as  
possible, socializing actions which help  
include more women every time, including  
proper education for women since  
childhood. The objective also refers to “girl  
empowerment” as education based on girls  
promoting their presence as protagonists  
and maintaining the necessary self-esteem  
so they themselves can promote the  
enforcement of their rights and that this  
equality is more focused and can be  
arranged into a normalized part of culture  
itself, with women holding an important role  
in society. This would represent great  
progress for social development.  
The quest for gender equality has long been  
a controversial subject. Not only because  
many people with contrary mentalities that  
blatantly oppose it still exist, but also  
misunderstood the idea of seeking equity  
and equality with the manipulation and  
undervaluation of men, which caused the  
appearance of the so called “feminazis”. The  
origin of this word can be traced back to the  
decade of the 90s and, Bozzo (2018) defined  
it as an exaggerated and radical variation of  
feminism. The main goal should be to  
highlight the difference between this  
variation and true equality, attempting to  
work for the common welfare of both  
genders, not only women.  
An important addition considered, even for  
development at a global level, is the  
Additionally, international  
instruments refer to gender equity. The  
Revista Científica y Arbitrada de Ciencias Sociales y Trabajo Social ‘‘Tejedora’’: Vol. 4 (Núm. 7) (ene-jun 2021). ISSN: 2697-3626  
Gender perspective and influences of barriers for participation of Ecuadorian Educators in positions of power  
report “Gender Equality” by (UN Women,  
016. p. 2) mentions the following elements:  
- In the International Covenant on Civil and  
Political Rights (1966) and the International  
Covenant on Economic, Social and Cultural  
Rights (1966), the Member States agree to  
respect and ensure that all individuals in  
their territory and within their jurisdiction  
are granted the rights established in said  
instruments, regardless of their race,  
language or gender, nationality, religion,  
political opinion, etc.”  
discrimination based on a person’s gender  
was forbidden; the principle of equality of  
rights between men and women was  
embodied in the United Nations Charter of  
June 1945.  
The Universal Declaration of Human Rights  
1948) also mentioned the principle of  
For women, the support of legal frameworks  
that protect rights that promote equality is a  
positive element and has great importance.  
Thus, it is aimed towards every human being  
having different perspectives of gender  
equality and the forbidding of all sorts of  
discrimination based on gender and  
establishes the right of all people to  
participate in an equalitarian manner in  
political decisions and to access functions for  
public affairs.  
According to\ (UNESCO, 2012. p.111-112)  
gender equality is evaluated depending on  
the number of opportunities for men and  
women in various areas such as education,  
health, labor force participation, and  
promotion opportunities. These are all  
indicators that allow the measurement of  
social advancement, as well as the exercise  
of certain values, attitudes and cultural  
traditions that make it possible to analyze  
the circumstances from a personal and  
community perspective, as well as any  
influences on possible contributions for  
The Convention on the Political Rights of  
Women (1954) proposes the  
implementation of the principle of equality  
of rights of men and women established in  
the United Nations Charter.  
The International Convention on the  
Elimination of All Forms of Racial  
Discrimination (1965) proposes policies  
towards the elimination of all forms of racial  
discrimination and promotion of common  
understanding among all races.  
Revista Científica y Arbitrada de Ciencias Sociales y Trabajo Social ‘‘Tejedora’’: Vol. 4 (Núm. 7) (ene-jun 2021). ISSN: 2697-3626  
Altamirano-Altamirano (2021)  
cultural, political, economic, and social  
development of the country. Finally, it is  
possible to make the best out of the  
beneficial results of the achievements  
obtained by both men and women, as that is  
the only way a positive numerical rating can  
be obtained.  
diversity, traditions, and cultural rights  
compatible with the gender equality desired.  
This would allow the same opportunities for  
access and participation in culture and  
various processes for both men and women,  
becoming a stepping-stone for equality.  
If equality can be ensured, many new  
Culture is key for the attainment of gender  
equality as the environment is, sadly, the  
main limiting condition. Thus, it is necessary  
to find strategies and aid from public entities  
to promote said equality, although it may  
result in conflicts with cultural practices and  
traditions. Culture may start to be  
considered a negative element, as an  
efficient instrument in the resistance to  
change which is even justified by the  
chronology and “history” behind said  
guaranteeing the development of interests  
and creativity of every individual. People will  
always have different perceptions, but the  
main goal should be to make it so that every  
person keeps an open mind towards  
inclusion and opportunities not only in  
public institutions or situations, but also at a  
personal level. This way, it could be  
considered a human right and a means for  
the development of society.  
This change in perception may also be  
attained with strategies and agreements  
that focus on gender as the main subject and  
promote the evolution and renewal of  
practices, values, attitudes and, of course,  
perceptions related to the roles of men and  
women within society. This, along with the  
support from governing  
The use of culture as a justification to avoid  
change and maintain the “status” of men in  
society preserves a sort of backward  
dynamism established in previous centuries  
and avoids any adaptations to social changes  
and certain sets of values that can achieve  
positive social transformations.  
One of the most important values needed to  
start the change would be the respect to  
officers in this context and the creation and  
promotion of public policies will help the  
Revista Científica y Arbitrada de Ciencias Sociales y Trabajo Social ‘‘Tejedora’’: Vol. 4 (Núm. 7) (ene-jun 2021). ISSN: 2697-3626  
Gender perspective and influences of barriers for participation of Ecuadorian Educators in positions of power  
construction of open, integrative societies  
according to the rights of all genders to  
obtain sustainable results. It is possible if this  
type of intervention becomes more  
commonplace and more people become  
involved. This means that it is necessary to  
work in a change in mentality for this kind of  
projects so that they do not span over a  
specific period only, but instead remain alive  
and present within the people who  
participated in it: in this case, the female  
educators of Ecuador.  
SPSS. There were also interviews to certain  
key informers from the G1, G2-UTA; and G1,  
G2-UTM groups. Finally, conclusions were  
drawn up concerning the perception of the  
existence of institutional barriers for access  
to academic power positions. A general  
report was drafted including the main  
findings of the study.  
According to the results of the surveys that  
were carried out for the women who do not  
occupy academic power positions at the  
Technical University of Ambato who attempt  
to reach, have desisted from or had resigned  
this year mentioned that that if they want to  
get a higher position, there are several  
factors that need to be considered, 30.77%  
expressed that their couples represent a  
barrier at home and their children limit their  
access, 23.08% stated that they have  
problems with their sons and daughters,  
15.38% do not any problems, they are free  
to make decisions because they do not have  
This change in perception will be attained  
using the corresponding tools: dialogues,  
agreements, and incentives for its execution,  
as well as the transmission of the collective  
benefits that gender equality would bring for  
For this investigation, there were various  
methods and materials starting with a pilot  
test to validate the survey. Afterwards, a  
script for a semi-structured interview was  
drafted for the G1 and G2 groups. The  
surveying took place at the Technical  
University of Ambato (UTA) and the  
Technical University of Manabi (UTM) with  
groups G1 and G2, using a Data Matrix in  
highlighted that experience is another  
factor. Likewise, 7.69% of the women who  
cannot get higher-ranking job positions  
mentioned that their parents influence  
Revista Científica y Arbitrada de Ciencias Sociales y Trabajo Social ‘‘Tejedora’’: Vol. 4 (Núm. 7) (ene-jun 2021). ISSN: 2697-3626  
Altamirano-Altamirano (2021)  
them. Likewise, the results of the surveys of  
taking the example of their parents and to  
obtain success in their lives.  
the women who have higher positions at  
Technical University of Ambato show that  
One of the most significant questions  
regarding the survey are the reasons why  
they accept to take other positions at work.  
This is determined by job training, in other  
words, the updating of knowledge produces  
new bases that are commonly developed to  
promote knowledge and updating it.  
4% were mentored by one of their  
coworkers, 36% of the women who are part  
of the surveyed population determined that  
the rector of the university and family  
members mentored them for the insertion in  
the occupational environment at the  
University. Regarding the influence of other  
people in decision-making it is said that  
According to 63.64% of people health is the  
main cause for leaving positions of authority.  
Being at work all the time neglects people’s  
health and even more their personal care,  
personal life, family, and friends for  
executing authority responsibilities in the  
5.29% are influenced by their children,  
followed by 25.53% from their parents and  
another high percentage argued that they  
are not influenced by anyone.  
With respect to behavior in the workplace,  
6.15% of people determine that their  
Another aspect that tends to create tension  
for women is to put aside friendship  
relations due to the occupational field they  
are working on. It is mentioned that 60% of  
the people are interested in social and  
cultural events, taking care of the family  
represents the 40% of women surveyed. It is  
worth mentioning that 88,6% of women are  
valued in their homes for the performance  
they are doing and their development in  
professional life.  
participation when taking decisions is active  
and they act when it is needed for their  
participation to become valid.  
Instruction was also mentioned because it is  
carried out in their homes. Parents had  
influenced an effective instruction and  
growth process in the academy. They have  
more relevance for a child to develop since  
both, father and mother have a specific role  
regarding their children development. For  
instance, women had made progress by  
Revista Científica y Arbitrada de Ciencias Sociales y Trabajo Social ‘‘Tejedora’’: Vol. 4 (Núm. 7) (ene-jun 2021). ISSN: 2697-3626  
Gender perspective and influences of barriers for participation of Ecuadorian Educators in positions of power  
Apart from conducting surveys to women  
who occupy and do not occupy senior  
positions, important interviews were also  
conducted. For women who are not in a  
currently public position or who rejected  
one, a remarkable fact was found.  
women who work at Technical University of  
Ambato had to put aside their professional  
career to work in other positions.  
Nevertheless, 25% of women who  
correspond to 7 women mentioned that  
working in high-ranking positions has not  
been a factor to abandon their professional  
For both the women who enter higher  
positions and those who do not have a  
common factor. According to 30.77%,  
women state that this factor is their partner.  
Additionally, the gender conquest has  
favored working and occupational practice.  
Therefore 90% of the women in the study do  
not have difficulties to develop their work as  
authorities at Technical University of  
Ambato. Furthermore, 40% of women  
acknowledge that the reason for accepting a  
higher position is professional satisfaction.  
In addition, they point out they know the  
educational system more closely.  
implications. Furthermore, as reported by  
3.08% of women, they have not had any  
result, there are household  
implications and they are free of their  
decisions. Since they do not have family  
On the other hand, in the interview with the  
women who are currently holding public  
positions, other series of questions were  
asked to know what difficulties they faced to  
get to where they are today.  
There are several factors that are included  
for obtaining a higher position. 15% of the  
women who access to the system is due to  
the petition of one of their coworkers, 10%  
mentioned that administrative imposition,  
In agreement with the 65% of women there  
are various barriers to holding high-ranking  
positions. Moreover, the 35% of the  
participants affirm there are no limitations  
for access to high-ranking positions.  
educational system and their coworker’s  
petition as it was previously mentioned are  
factors to enter a higher hierarchy job.  
Another question that was analyzed in this  
interview revealed that 75% of surveyed  
Revista Científica y Arbitrada de Ciencias Sociales y Trabajo Social ‘‘Tejedora’’: Vol. 4 (Núm. 7) (ene-jun 2021). ISSN: 2697-3626  
Altamirano-Altamirano (2021)  
Despite the difficulties of holding public  
As mentioned in (Organización Internacional  
de Trabajo, 2014), men and boys are also in  
charge of working together to open  
opportunities to the market and maintain  
equality in a healthy and respectful  
relationship between equals. Since people  
want to achieve this objective, it should be  
coordinated by both genders and notice the  
benefits of them.  
functions in the Educational System, 60% of  
people did not have any issues in exercising  
them. In addition, 20% of those surveyed  
have had some dilemmas with time and  
social incompatibility, and in 5% there is little  
capacity to  
To change this perception, it must be  
considered according to the (Programa de  
las Naciones Unidas para el Desarrollo, 2015)  
(UNDP) which states that empowerment is  
essential for social development in a  
sustainable way and maintaining a balanced  
society, apart from providing notable  
economic growth, as the objective that is  
raised according to female empowerment.  
According to the results of indices and  
surveys, it can be concluded that many of  
the women who are currently holding public  
functions are mothers. The problem also lies  
in the way mothers see their children as a  
motivation to their professional growth. On  
the other hand, they unconsciously see their  
children as one of the greatest impediments.  
Besides, it should be emphasized that in  
many cases it is not only the children, but  
also the partner and sometimes their  
“It is vital to ensure that women have a voice  
and vote in all government institutions, from  
the judiciary to the public function, as well as  
in the private sector and civil society, so that  
they can participate equally in public  
dialogue and the decision-making and  
influence the decisions that will determine  
the future of their families and countries.”  
(Programa de las Naciones Unidas para el  
Desarrollo, 2015) (UNDP).  
The inequality of opportunities doe not only  
lies in what is socially done but goes further.  
Due to family reasons and even insecurities  
created by the woman herself, which is why  
these factors are taken as personal  
limitations in the process of knowledge  
Revista Científica y Arbitrada de Ciencias Sociales y Trabajo Social ‘‘Tejedora’’: Vol. 4 (Núm. 7) (ene-jun 2021). ISSN: 2697-3626  
Gender perspective and influences of barriers for participation of Ecuadorian Educators in positions of power  
The role that a woman plays is a determining  
factor, which is why UNDP has also provided  
in Latin America and the Caribbean, a  
program that motivates public and private  
companies to promote gender equality in  
the workplace. In 12 countries, 1,700  
companies have been certified for meeting  
program standards through hiring and  
practices relevant to this project.  
The perception process in gender equity  
regardless of where we live or where it is  
investigated, can become a social problem if  
it is not addressed because this equity  
process is a fundamental human right. In  
addition to being the basis for a healthy  
society that is aimed at reducing poverty  
when women receive economic incomes for  
improvements in the field of health,  
inclusive education, protection and well-  
being of children and adolescents.  
There are more and more policies, which  
oversee allowing the global development of  
gender equality, which is an opening for the  
change of people's perceptions. Being in a  
certain way a slow process but effective.  
What becomes more complicated is the fact  
of breaking certain individual women  
limitations. As observed in the surveys and in  
the analyzed interviews, several cases show  
that society does not only impose obstacles,  
but also certain mental limitations  
motivated by the previous culture for  
women who tried to access these public  
Due to these indicators, intervention actions  
must be taken through the implementation  
of programs that also allow women not only  
to be part of a social but economic way  
promoting the generation of resources and  
the enjoyment of them within a country.  
The research based on the results of the  
interviews and applied surveys provokes  
reflection in our world of perceptions about  
gender equity in the world of work to  
critically engage with solutions to each of  
these limitations and mental schemes.  
The importance of working on this type of  
mentality change, with children, from a very  
young age will create empowerment and a  
positive perception about what gender  
equality is in a different way.  
Moreover, there are some factors that must  
be considered. One of them is people who  
work in gender projects. Professionals in  
charge of the execution of these projects  
Revista Científica y Arbitrada de Ciencias Sociales y Trabajo Social ‘‘Tejedora’’: Vol. 4 (Núm. 7) (ene-jun 2021). ISSN: 2697-3626  
Altamirano-Altamirano (2021)  
must be those involved in social areas, who  
of problem, it is not possible to speak of  
equality if this type of problem continues to  
can maintain direct and effective contact  
with people, who know how to listen, but  
also how to speak in a way to motivate  
The purpose of this research is to motivate  
the creation of labor and social policies that  
promote equity not only at Technical  
University of Ambato but also in the Coast  
and Highlands. These policies should be  
considered as a starting point to be  
socialized and applied not only here but in  
other places as well.  
Historically, impressive progress has been  
made for the change that is wanted, but  
despite that, several stereotypes continue  
that still influence the perception of gender  
issues, added to prejudices or stereotypes  
regarding age, ethnicity, sexual orientation,  
socioeconomic status, among others.  
Women as professionals have the same  
capacity as men. For this reason, they should  
have the same possibilities to be promoted,  
receive equal incomes and that their role  
receives the importance that deserves.  
Although much work has been done for  
equal opportunities, there are still different  
barriers not only personal, but also within  
the labor society that prevent women from  
trying to reach high positions and eventually  
they will resign.  
The perception that women have less time  
due to a bad distribution of roles, demand an  
obligation to their homes which detriment  
their own autonomous development.  
Bozzo, F. (2018). Feminazismo, hembrismo e  
ideología de género. Litorales, 3-13.  
CEPAL: Naciones Unidas. (2016). Agenda  
030 y Objetivos de Desarrollo  
Another type of problem, which could even  
be considered as a type of gender violence,  
is that the highest percentage of women  
who did not accept a position of authority is  
due to their partners. This could be an  
inconceivable action regardless of any type  
ONU Mujeres. (2016). La igualdad de género.  
Ciudad de México: ONU.  
Organización Internacional de Trabajo.  
(2014). Igualdad de género y no  
Revista Científica y Arbitrada de Ciencias Sociales y Trabajo Social ‘‘Tejedora’’: Vol. 4 (Núm. 7) (ene-jun 2021). ISSN: 2697-3626  
Gender perspective and influences of barriers for participation of Ecuadorian Educators in positions of power  
discriminación: Guía para la acción.  
San José: OIT.  
Oviedo, G. (2004). La definición del concepto  
de percepción en psicología. Revista  
de Estudios Sociales, 89-96.  
Programa de las Naciones Unidas para el  
Desarrollo. (2015). Empoderamiento  
de la Mujer. Retrieved from:  
Scott, J. (1986). El género: una categoría útil  
para el análisis histórico. Bivipas.  
UNESCO. (2012). Igualdad de Género.  
Vargas Melgarejo, L. (1994). Sobre el  
Alternalidades, 47-53.