Revista Científica y Arbitrada de Ciencias Sociales y Trabajo Social ‘‘Tejedora’’: Vol. 4 (Núm. 7) (ene-jun 2021). ISSN: 2697-3626  
Gender Approach: Towards the Eradication of Violence Against Women in University Education  
GENDER APPROACH: TOWARDS THE ERADICATION OF VIOLENCE AGAINST WOMEN IN  
UNIVERSITY EDUCATION  
ENFOQUE DE GÉNERO: HACIA LA ERRADICACIÓN DE LA VIOLENCIA CONTRA LA MUJER EN LA  
EDUCACIÓN UNIVERSITARIA  
1
Álvarez-Santana Carmita  
Barreto-Pico Asunción  
2
3
Gómez-Zambrano Marjorie  
1
2
3
ABSTRACT:  
This work has the purpose of socializing before the scientific community interested in the matter, the presentation  
of the partial results obtained, within the framework of the formulation of a broader project called: Gender study  
for the eradication of violence in the System of Higher Education: Case ULEAM. In this work, the results obtained  
from the partial diagnosis of the situation in gender relations that are developed in the ULEAM are presented to  
identify the existence or not of sexist practices. From this framework, the “Eloy Alfaro” Secular University of Manabí  
is part of the Gender Network, whose membership aims to contribute to the fulfillment of the objectives of the  
National Plan for Good Living. The research is quantitative, specialized bibliographic sources were consulted. Among  
the results, the following stand out: Regarding whether a teacher, student, or administrative officer (man) sexually  
harasses them, 96.56% do not answer the question, 1.15% express that they are a teacher, 2.06% point to male  
students and the 0.23% to an administrative. It is assumed that those who did not answer it is because the question  
does not apply or because they are afraid to answer it. The results show that there is sexual harassment of female  
students within ULEAM by male students, teachers, or administrators. It is concluded that the rights of women are  
inviolable, that they must be recognized and respected by the entire university community.  
Keywords: gender approach, violence against women, university education.  
RESUMEN:  
Este trabajo tiene la finalidad de socializar ante la comunidad científica interesada en la materia, la presentación de  
los resultados parciales obtenidos, en el marco de la formulación de un proyecto más amplio denominado: Estudio  
de género para la erradicación de la violencia en el Sistema de Educación Superior: Caso ULEAM. En este trabajo, se  
presentan los resultados obtenidos del diagnóstico parcial de la situación en las relaciones de género que se  
desarrollan en la ULEAM para identificar la existencia o no de prácticas sexistas. Desde este marco, la Universidad  
Laica “Eloy Alfaro” de Manabí forma parte de la Red de Género, desde cuya membresía se aspira contribuir al  
cumplimiento de los objetivos del Plan Nacional del Buen Vivir. La investigación es de corte cuantitativa, se  
consultaron fuentes bibliográficas especializadas. Entre los resultados destaca: En lo que respecta a si algún docente,  
estudiante o administrativo (hombre) le acosa sexualmente, el 96.56% no responde la pregunta, el 1.15% expresa  
que es un docente, el 2.06% señala a estudiantes varones y el 0.23% a un administrativo. Se asume que los que no  
contestaron es porque no procede la pregunta o porque tienen temor contestarla. Los resultados demuestran que,  
si existe acoso sexual a las estudiantes mujeres dentro de la Uleam por parte de estudiantes, docentes o  
administrativos hombres. Se concluye que los derechos de las mujeres son inviolables, que deben ser reconocidos y  
respetados por toda la comunidad universitaria.  
Palabras Clave: enfoque de género, violencia contra la mujer, educación universitaria.  
Recibido: 28 de septiembre de 2020; Aceptado: 04 de enero de 2021; Publicado: 08 de enero de 2021.  
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Álvarez-Santana et al. (2021)  
1
. INTRODUCTION  
One of the purposes of the Higher Education  
and Gender Network of Ecuador is to  
achieve the articulation of a comprehensive  
work where equality is shown in the student,  
teaching, management, and administrative  
areas, but also in the content of the  
curriculum and in the generation of  
knowledge. Following its incorporation into  
the Gender Network, ULEAM considered the  
need to carry out a social diagnosis as one of  
the Network's initial actions, to have data  
that would illustrate the existing situation of  
inequality, as a tool for defining policies or  
actions that would make it possible to take  
concrete action to promote gender equality  
in conjunction with other types of  
inequalities: ethnic, generational, disability,  
gender diversity and mobility.  
contribution of university institutions to  
national development has a socializing  
function and a multiplier effect that radiates  
its influence outside their communities; the  
achievements they reach in relation to  
gender equality will always have an impact  
on different areas of our societies. The  
measures taken by universities to  
understand gender relations and correct  
inequalities will be fundamental to the  
democratization and justice processes of  
society. “Overcoming inequality and  
exclusion as a strategy to reach the path  
towards sustainable development in  
societies, is perhaps the most pressing and  
important challenge of these times for  
countries and HEIs” (Aponte & Hernández,  
2008).  
Higher education institutions are spaces for  
the creation and transmission of scientific  
knowledge, for the production and  
reproduction of values and behaviors, and  
for the coexistence of different social and  
generational sectors. They have a social  
Therefore, this investigation will be based on  
Article 11 of the Constitution, which states:  
“All persons are equal and shall enjoy the  
same rights, duties and opportunities. No  
one shall be discriminated against on the  
basis of ethnicity, birthplace, age, sex,  
gender identity, cultural identity, marital  
status, language, religion, ideology, political  
affiliation, judicial background, socio-  
economic status, immigration status, sexual  
responsibility  
to  
have  
equitable  
environments that favor equal academic,  
labor, and professional opportunities  
between the sexes. In this order, the  
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Revista Científica y Arbitrada de Ciencias Sociales y Trabajo Social ‘‘Tejedora’’: Vol. 4 (Núm. 7) (ene-jun 2021). ISSN: 2697-3626  
Gender Approach: Towards the Eradication of Violence Against Women in University Education  
orientation, health status, HIV status,  
disability, physical difference; nor by any  
other personal or collective distinction,  
temporary or permanent, which has the  
purpose or result of impairing or nullifying  
the recognition, enjoyment or exercise of  
rights, since the law will sanction any form of  
discrimination”.  
The information used was obtained from the  
results of a group of students with the  
application of an online survey on the  
subject with the rigor, seriousness and ethics  
required by this type of study. The applied  
survey was directed to students of both  
sexes, for purposes of the results of the topic  
raised, the information of answers given  
only by female students was filtered.  
The State shall adopt affirmative action  
measures that promote real equality in favor  
of rights holders who are in a situation of  
inequality. Hence, the objective of this  
research is to disseminate/socialize before  
the scientific community interested in the  
subject, the presentation of the partial  
results obtained, within the framework of  
the formulation of a broader project called:  
Gender Study for the Eradication of Violence  
in the Higher Education System: The ULEAM  
Quantitative indicators have a numerical  
form and refer to the objective and material  
relations of the facts or phenomena that  
occur in natural or social reality (Tobalino,  
Dolorier, Villa y Menacho, 2017). They are  
expressed as coefficients, proportions,  
ranges, strata of an age structure and indices  
of behavior of a phenomenon over time. For  
this purpose, information will be collected  
from the different academic units and  
departments.  
Case,  
in  
which  
teacher-researchers  
participate.  
Two research techniques were applied, for  
the three strata that make up the population  
to be investigated:  
2
. MATERIALS AND METHODS  
The study was quantitative, since it was  
based on numerical information obtained  
through the application of surveys to eighth  
grade students in the periods already  
mentioned, with two variables: gender  
approach and violence against women.  
Quantitative technique: surveys.  
Qualitative technique: content analysis.  
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Álvarez-Santana et al. (2021)  
3
. RESULTS  
From the survey applied to 873 female students from various faculties of Uleam in 2019, the  
following results were obtained, summarized in 15 tables.  
Table 1. Subjects and sample size.  
Students  
Professors  
Employees  
19.000  
800  
800  
377  
260  
260  
5%  
5%  
5%  
95%  
95%  
95%  
Prepared by: Members of the Gender Research Project. (2020).  
The study should cover the situation of the various strata of the University, disaggregated by sex,  
that is: students, teaching staff and administrative personnel. The size of the sample will be  
according to the following detail:  
Table 2. Focal groups.  
Year  
Faculties Type (teachers, students)  
Communication Teachers and students’  
Sciences  
members of the project.  
Teachers and students’  
members of the project.  
Teachers and students’  
members of the project.  
2
018  
Architecture  
Social Work  
Prepared by: Members of the Gender Research Project. (2020).  
Table 3. Means of communication  
Internet  
Newspaper  
Locals  
Provincials  
National  
Social Networks  
Digital media  
Television and radio  
Prepared by: Members of the Gender Research Project. (2020).  
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Gender Approach: Towards the Eradication of Violence Against Women in University Education  
Table 4. Age of the student.  
No. Age range  
f
%
1
2
3
4
5
6
7
8
18-20  
20-22  
22-24  
24-26  
26-28  
28-30  
30 >  
147 16.84%  
107 12.26%  
59  
26  
12  
7
6.76%  
2.98%  
1.37%  
0.80%  
3.55%  
31  
No answer  
Total  
484 55.44%  
873 100.00%  
Prepared by: Members of the Gender Research Project. (2020).  
Table 5. Marital status of the student.  
No. Marital status  
Frequency Percentage  
1
2
3
4
5
6
Married  
Separated  
Divorced  
Single  
Fact Union  
No answer  
Total  
32  
7
3
333  
5
493  
873  
3.67%  
0.80%  
0.34%  
38.14%  
0.57%  
56.47%  
100.00%  
Prepared by: Members of the Gender Research Project. (2020).  
Table 6. Current level of study.  
No.  
1
2
3
4
5
6
7
8
Answer  
First Level  
Frequency Percentage  
75  
57  
8.59%  
6.53%  
8.25%  
4.93%  
2.52%  
5.96%  
2.52%  
3.78%  
1.72%  
2.06%  
53.15%  
100.00%  
Second Level  
Third Level  
Fourth Level  
Fifth Level  
Sixth Level  
Seventh Level  
Eighth Level  
Ninth Level  
Tenth Level  
No response  
Total  
72  
43  
22  
52  
22  
33  
15  
18  
9
1
1
0
1
464  
873  
Prepared by: Members of the Gender Research Project. (2020).  
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Álvarez-Santana et al. (2021)  
Table 7. Sexual harassment by a teacher, student, or administrator (male).  
No.  
1
2
Answer  
Frequency Percentage  
Teacher  
Student  
10  
18  
1.15%  
2.06%  
3
Administrative  
2
0.23%  
4
Not Answered/Not Applicable  
Total  
843  
873  
96.56%  
100.00%  
Prepared by: Members of the Gender Research Project. (2020).  
Table 8. Sexual harassment by a teacher, student, or administrator (female).  
No.  
1
2
Answer  
Frequency Percentage  
Teacher  
Student  
1
6
0.11%  
0.69%  
3
Administrative  
1
0.11%  
4
Not Answered/Not Applicable  
Total  
865  
873  
99.08%  
100.00%  
Prepared by: Members of the Gender Research Project. (2020).  
Table 9. Exclusion from some activity for being a woman.  
No.  
1
2
Answer  
Frequency Percentage  
Yes  
No  
76  
702  
95  
8.71%  
80.41%  
10.88%  
100.00%  
3
No reply  
Total  
873  
Prepared by: Members of the Gender Research Project. (2020).  
Table 10. Activity from which she was excluded because she was a woman.  
No.  
1
2
3
4
Answer  
Frequency Percentage  
Cultural activities  
Social activities  
Scholarships  
Sports  
2
7
4
6
3
0.23%  
0.80%  
0.46%  
0.69%  
0.34%  
97.48%  
100.00%  
5
6
Awards  
No answer/not applicable 851  
Total 873  
Prepared by: Members of the Gender Research Project. (2020).  
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Gender Approach: Towards the Eradication of Violence Against Women in University Education  
Table 11. How often you hear or see the following behaviors in the classroom or on campus.  
Very  
often  
No  
answer  
No.  
Answer  
Never  
%
Rarely  
%
Sometimes  
%
Frequently  
%
%
%
Teachers (men) make  
jokes and comments  
that stereotype and  
denigrate women  
1
581 66.55% 168 19.24%  
75  
8.59%  
12  
1.37%  
12  
1.37%  
25  
44  
55  
2.86%  
Teachers  
make  
(women)  
jokes and  
comments  
stereotype  
denigrate women  
that 679 77.78% 114 13.06%  
and  
24  
2.75%  
9
1.03%  
7.10%  
3
0.34%  
1.26%  
5.04%  
6.30%  
2
3
Male students defend  
their ideas and  
answers more than  
female students  
255 29.21% 299 34.25%  
156 17.87% 108 12.37%  
191  
21.88%  
62  
11  
The teachers (men)  
take the answers and  
suggestions of the  
students (women) as  
seriously as those of  
the students (men)  
4
5
133  
132  
15.23%  
15.12%  
204  
214  
23.37% 220 25.20%  
52  
55  
5.96%  
6.30%  
The teachers (women)  
take seriously the  
answers  
and  
suggestions of the 157 17.98%  
94  
10.77%  
24.51% 221 25.32%  
students (women) as  
much as those of the  
students (men)  
Prepared by: Members of the Gender Research Project. (2020).  
Table 12. Experiences of some of the following situations in your faculty with respect to males.  
Male  
student  
Male  
professor  
Male  
staff  
Male  
worker  
No  
answer  
No.  
Answer  
Presence  
No  
%
Yes  
%
%
%
%
%
%
of  
posters,  
calendars,  
computer  
screens  
1
or 797 91.29% 19 2.18%  
19  
2.18%  
3
0.34%  
1
0.11%  
5
0.57%  
29  
3.32%  
other images of  
a sexual nature  
that make your  
uncomfortable.  
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Unwanted  
compliments  
or comments 660 75.60% 53 6.07%  
about your  
appearance  
82  
91  
9.39%  
10.42%  
11.45%  
17  
29  
19  
1.95%  
3.32%  
2.18%  
1
3
2
0.11%  
0.34%  
0.23%  
17  
22  
6
1.95%  
2.52%  
0.69%  
43  
45  
51  
4.93%  
5.15%  
5.84%  
2
3
Unhealthy  
looks  
suggestive  
gestures that  
annoy you  
or  
623 71.36% 60 6.87%  
or  
637 72.97% 58 6.64%  
Mocking,  
joking  
suggestive  
4
5
6
100  
gestures that  
annoy you  
Pressure  
accept  
to  
invitations to  
unwanted  
778 89.12% 12 1.37%  
or  
21  
2.41%  
0.80%  
13  
1.49%  
0.00%  
2
0
0.23%  
0.00%  
0
0
0.00%  
0.00%  
47  
66  
5.38%  
7.56%  
meetings  
appointments  
outside  
the  
institution  
Unwanted  
letters, phone  
calls  
or 787 90.15% 13 1.49%  
7
0
messages of a  
sexual nature.  
Threats  
that  
will negatively  
affect  
your  
academic  
7
status, if you 804 92.10%  
do not accept  
sexual  
7
0.80%  
5
0.57%  
5
0.57%  
1
0.11%  
0
0.00%  
51  
5.84%  
invitations and  
proposals.  
Requirement  
to engage in  
activities that  
are not part of  
their academic  
8
801 91.75% 10 1.15%  
7
0.80%  
4
0.46%  
0
0.00%  
0
0.00%  
51  
5.84%  
or  
other  
disciplinary  
activities  
for  
refusing sexual  
advances  
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Gender Approach: Towards the Eradication of Violence Against Women in University Education  
Rubbing,  
unwanted  
physical  
contact  
9
767 87.86% 18 2.06%  
26  
8
2.98%  
0.92%  
0
4
0.00%  
0.46%  
0
0
0.00%  
0.00%  
3
0
0.34%  
0.00%  
59  
55  
6.76%  
6.30%  
Verbal  
pressure  
have sex  
10  
to 798 91.41%  
8
0.92%  
Prepared by: Members of the Gender Research Project. (2020).  
Table 13. Experiences of some of the following situations in your faculty with respect to females.  
Female  
student  
Female  
professor  
Female  
staff  
Female  
worker  
No  
answer  
No.  
Answer  
No  
%
Yes  
%
%
%
%
%
%
Presence  
of  
posters, calendars,  
computer screens  
or other images of a 802 91.87% 12 1.37%  
sexual nature that  
1
6
0.69%  
1
1
0.11%  
2
0
0.23%  
2
8
0.23%  
48  
5.50%  
make  
you  
uncomfortable.  
Unwanted  
compliments  
or  
2
735 84.19% 37 4.24%  
30  
3.44%  
0.11%  
0.00%  
0.92%  
62  
7.10%  
comments about  
your appearance.  
Unhealthy looks or  
suggestive gestures 731 83.73% 38 4.35%  
that annoy you.  
3
4
23  
44  
2.63%  
5.04%  
7
4
0.80%  
0.46%  
1
2
0.11%  
0.23%  
8
6
0.92%  
0.69%  
65  
69  
7.45%  
7.90%  
Mocking, joking or  
suggestive gestures 712 81.56% 36 4.12%  
that annoy you.  
Pressure to accept  
invitations  
unwanted  
meetings  
appointments  
outside  
to  
5
6
or 791 90.61%  
9
8
1.03%  
0.92%  
3
7
0.34%  
0.80%  
3
3
0.34%  
0.34%  
0
1
0.00%  
0.11%  
1
1
0.11%  
0.11%  
66  
70  
7.56%  
8.02%  
the  
institution.  
Unwanted letters,  
phone calls or  
messages of  
783 89.69%  
a
sexual nature.  
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Threats  
negatively affect  
your academic  
status if you do not 789 90.38%  
that  
7
5
6
0.57%  
0.69%  
3
3
0.34%  
0.34%  
2
1
0.23%  
0.11%  
0
1
0.00%  
0.11%  
1
1
0.11%  
0.11%  
73  
69  
8.36%  
7.90%  
accept  
invitations  
proposals.  
sexual  
and  
Requirement  
to  
engage in activities  
that are not part of  
their academic or  
other disciplinary  
8
9
792 90.72%  
activities  
refusing  
for  
sexual  
advances.  
Rubbing, unwanted  
physical contact.  
765 87.63% 14 1.60%  
12  
4
1.37%  
0.46%  
3
1
0.34%  
0.11%  
0
0
0.00%  
0.00%  
2
1
0.23%  
0.11%  
77  
81  
8.82%  
9.28%  
Verbal pressure to  
have sex.  
10  
780 89.35%  
6
0.69%  
Prepared by: Members of the Gender Research Project. (2020).  
Table Nº 14. Actions taken by students when their rights are violated.  
No.  
Answer  
I told a friend/family member  
I asked for a consultation with a teacher.  
I asked the University for advice  
Hired a lawyer  
Filed a complaint with my school authorities  
Other actions  
Nothing  
Frequency  
Percentage  
11.00%  
1.60%  
1.03%  
0.23%  
2.63%  
5.50%  
29.67%  
48.34%  
100.00%  
1
2
3
4
5
6
7
8
96  
14  
9
2
23  
48  
259  
422  
873  
Not applicable  
Total  
Prepared by: Members of the Gender Research Project. (2020).  
Table Nº 15. Reasons for not taking action.  
No.  
1
Answer  
Frequency  
Percentage  
12.94%  
2.06%  
I didn't give it a second thought  
113  
18  
2
I didn't know what to do  
3
I didn't want to be considered a troublesome person  
15  
1.72%  
11  
Revista Científica y Arbitrada de Ciencias Sociales y Trabajo Social ‘‘Tejedora’’: Vol. 4 (Núm. 7) (ene-jun 2021). ISSN: 2697-3626  
Gender Approach: Towards the Eradication of Violence Against Women in University Education  
4
I thought the authorities were not going to do anything  
12  
1.37%  
5
6
7
8
9
I filed a complaint with my school authorities  
I thought they might retaliate  
I was afraid of the possible reaction of my aggressor  
I was afraid of damaging my own reputation  
There were no witnesses and I thought it was useless  
to make the complaint  
23  
7
3
2.63%  
0.80%  
0.34%  
0.46%  
1.26%  
4
11  
1
1
0
1
Others  
No answer/not applicable  
Total  
116  
551  
873  
13.29%  
63.12%  
100.00%  
Prepared by: Members of the Gender Research Project. (2020).  
4
. DISCUSSION  
Regarding whether a teacher, student, or  
administrator (male) sexually harasses him,  
Of the total number of students that placed  
their age in the ranges presented, 80%  
correspond to the ranges between 18 and 24  
years, with a range of 2 years interval,  
implies that the students surveyed are in a  
young stage. As for the marital status of the  
students surveyed, of the total who  
answered this question, 87.63% are single  
and 8.42% are married, so it follows that the  
vast majority still have parental and  
maternal dependence.  
9
6.56% did not answer the question, 1.15%  
said a teacher, 2.06% pointed to male  
students, and 0.23% pointed to an  
administrator. The assumption is that those  
who did not answer is because the question  
is not appropriate or because they are afraid  
to answer. Despite this, the results show that  
there is sexual harassment of female  
students within ULEAM by male students,  
teachers, and administrators.  
Regarding the question if any teacher,  
student, or administrator (female) sexually  
harasses him/her, 99.08% did not answer  
the question, 0.69% answered that a  
student, 0.11% indicated that she is a  
In relation to the academic levels of the  
students, there is an average of 15.65% in  
the first, second, third and sixth levels, and  
an average of 5% in the remaining levels,  
these results are the product of  
a
teacher  
and  
another  
0.11%  
an  
randomized response process given by  
students from all ULEAM careers.  
administrator. It is likely that the vast  
majority who did not answer is because they  
12  
Revista Científica y Arbitrada de Ciencias Sociales y Trabajo Social ‘‘Tejedora’’: Vol. 4 (Núm. 7) (ene-jun 2021). ISSN: 2697-3626  
Álvarez-Santana et al. (2021)  
do not apply this question to their reality,  
The teachers (women) make jokes and  
comments that stereotype and denigrate  
women, responded: 13.06% rarely, 2.75%  
sometimes 1.03% frequently and 0.34% very  
frequently.  
however, we must consider that other  
percentage which, although less important,  
denotes that there is sexual harassment by  
women to female students within the  
university.  
In the question: Male students defend their  
ideas and answers more than female  
students, female students conclude: 34.25%  
rarely, 21.88% sometimes, 7.10% frequently,  
and 1.26% very frequently. Regarding the  
question: The teachers (men) take seriously  
the answers and suggestions of the students  
(women) as much as those of the students  
(men), the students respond: 17.87% say  
never, 12.37% say rarely, 15.23%  
sometimes, 23.37% think frequently and  
25.20% very frequently.  
According to the answers given by the  
students surveyed, 80.41% said they had not  
been excluded from any activity because  
they were women, however, 8.71% said they  
had and 10.88% did not answer the question  
and, of those who answered yes, 0.23% said  
cultural activities, 0.80% social activities,  
0
.46% scholarships, 0.69% sports, 0.34%  
awards. No consistency is shown with the  
result of the previous question. Situations of  
exclusion can be seen in smaller portions,  
but they continue to be a reality in which  
university students live.  
And in the last question of this section, if the  
teachers (women) take seriously the  
answers and suggestions of the students  
(women) as much as those of the students  
(men), they answer: 17.98% say never,  
10.77% think rarely, 15.12% sometimes,  
24.51% frequently and 25.32% very  
frequently.  
Regarding the frequency with which they  
hear or witness various behaviors in their  
classroom or on their faculty, students  
expressed themselves as follows: Teachers  
(men) make jokes and comments that  
stereotype and denigrate women, 19.24%  
say they rarely, 8.59% sometimes, 1.37%  
frequently and 1.37% very frequently.  
The results obtained show that women  
students at ULEAM are discriminated against  
in one way or another because of their  
13